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   2021| January-March  | Volume 8 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 31, 2021

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Introducing the new model of healthy thinking based on human soul faculties: Application in psychotherapy approaches in clinical psychology
Nasir Javidi, Mostafa Ghanei, Khodabakhsh Ahmadi, Mohammad Javad Ahmadizadeh, Abbas Ebadi
January-March 2021, 8(1):1-6
Aims: Regarding the importance of health as well as the discussion of thinking in psychology and philosophy, so far, no model has been presented in the field of the relationship between “thinking and health” with this model. Therefore, the present study aimed to introduce the new model of healthy thinking based on human soul faculties. Materials and Methods: Using the narrative review method, 63 sources were selected among the 240-evidence, including books, articles, national, and international reports and theses from PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, and Web of sciences, then entered the analysis stage Indicators of sensory and intellectual thinking were extracted from these sources. Then, the indicators were coded and analyzed according to the Content Analysis method. Results: The results of this research are used in psychotherapy in clinical psychology because researches have shown that thinking and especially healthy thinking has a very effective role in mental health and a healthy lifestyle. Several concepts are available in this model: The nature of thinking, levels of thinking, sources of error in thinking such as cognitive distortions, cognitive bias, and perceptual errors. Conclusion: The models of thinking that have been proposed in the world so far have many shortcomings, including none of them has the power to clarification thinking and none of the theories and models have the relationship between thinking and health been clearly explained, while the proposed thinking model of the present study does not have such shortcomings.
  1,108 157 -
Comparison of mental workload with N-Back test: A new design for NASA-task load index questionnaire
Mahdi Malakoutikhah, Reza Kazemi, Hadiseh Rabiei, Moslem Alimohammadlou, Asma Zare, Soheil Hassanipour
January-March 2021, 8(1):7-13
Aims: A most widely used tool for measuring the workload is the NASA-task load index (TLX) questionnaire, in which various studies have reported numerous problems. The present study aimed to improve the NSAS-TLX mental workload questionnaire using the fuzzy linguistic variables instead of the virtual rating scale, and multicriteria decision-making Fuzzy Best-Worst method (FBWM) instead of pair-wise comparison. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In order to compare the traditional NASA-TLX and FBWM NASA-TLX questionnaire, participants performed a standard N-Back task with three low, medium, and high workload, subsequently, they completed the two questionnaires. Finally, results were examined using the researcher-made software and SPSS 16. Results: With regard to the reaction time to response the N-Back test, the mean of correct responses were 107.43 and 85.86 responses at levels 1 and 3, respectively. The mean score of the subscales and the final score in the two questionnaires at different levels of the N-Back test were independent as follows: the two questionnaires had a significant difference on mental demand at level 3 with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 18.09 (6.39) in the FBWM-NASA-TLX questionnaire and mean (SD) of 22.64 (8.15) in the NASA-TLX questionnaire ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: In this study, the FBWM-NASA-TLX questionnaire was designed and studied with regard to the problems and limitations of the NASA-TLX questionnaire. Results of this study showed that the FBWM-NASA-TLX questionnaire can estimate more realistic scores and decisions of workload in the studied task.
  960 122 -
A study of clinicians' views on medical gloves size in Iran: A challenge and solutions
Mehdi Jahangiri, Alireza Choobineh, Mina Salehi, Asma Zare
January-March 2021, 8(1):20-23
Aims: Glove fitting is an essential factor that affects health-care workers' performance. This study aimed to evaluate health-care workers' opinion about medical gloves fitting. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 525 health-care workers in the hospitals of five cities in Iran (response rate was 95.45%). The Medical Gloves Assessment Tool was used for collecting the required data. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 22 software. Results: The results showed that the health-care workers were not satisfied with the size of medical gloves in different areas of fingertips, between fingers, and the wrist. Accordingly, more than 70% of the participants were <50% satisfied with medical gloves fitting. Conclusion: Due to the importance of medical gloves fitting and the lack of sufficient information in this field, it is necessary to check the compatibility of hand dimensions of the Iranian health-care workers with the existing glove size systems. If necessary, a glove sizing system should be developed based on the anthropometric dimensions of health-care workers in Iran.
  813 94 -
Association of number of incident cases and deaths of cancers with health indicators among Iranian military community: An ecological study
Yousef Alimohamadi, Sima Afrashteh, Majid Janani, Alireza Khoshdel
January-March 2021, 8(1):14-19
Aims: Cancers are the second leading cause of death in developing countries. Because of the impact of health indicators on incidence and mortality of many diseases such as cancers and the lack of similar studies in Iran especially among the military community (MC) the current study was aimed to assess the association between the incident cases and deaths of cancers with some health indicators among Iranian MC. Materials and Methods: In the current ecological study, the required data about the cancer patients were earned from the registered cases in the insurance organization of the Iranian MC. Other data were extracted from the statistical center of Iran. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between the under studied variables. All analyses were done using Stata 14 software. The significance level was set at α = 0.05. Results: The most incidence and deaths of cancer cases were reported from Tehran, Isfahan, and Khorasan Razavi provinces, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the number of health houses, active health houses, number of hospitals, number of clinics, number of hospital beds, number of literacy people with death, and incidence case of cancers among Iranian MC ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: Health-care centers and the education status of individuals are associated with cancers incidence and mortality. These findings can be very helpful for health planners and policymakers to designing intervention programs to prevent incidence and decrease the burden of these diseases.
  770 112 -
Evaluation of anti-helmintic activity of Zingiber officinale roscoe extract on Fasciola hepatica miracidia In vitro
Atefe Ghafar, Mohsen Arbabi, Mahdi Mosayebi, Hossein Hooshyar, Ali Mohammad Nickfarjam
January-March 2021, 8(1):45-50
Aims: The control of fascioliasis has depended on the utilization of a predetermined number of anthelmintic drugs. Nonetheless, the resistance of antifasciolid is presently boundless, and there is a need for potential drug properties of medicinal plants as new medications against Fasciola spp. to interrupt the parasite transmission. Materials and Methods: This investigation is meant to assess the potential anti-fasciolicide impacts of Zingiber officinale roscoe hydroalcoholic extract against the Fasciola miracidia. The eggs of Fasciola hepatica were gathered from the livers contaminated goats and sheep and washed 20 times with chlorine-free water, and afterward incubated at different pH, temperature, and light density for embryonic development. Concentrated miracidia of Fasciola spp. were incubated at different concentrations (2, 5, and 10 μg/mL) of hydroalcoholic extract of Z. officinale at different time intervals. The data were analyzed using the ANOVA statistical test. Results: The extract at different concentrations showed antifasciolid effects in comparison to triclabendazole. This braking action was dose-proportional and further related firmly to the disclosure time ( P < 0.001). In concentration of 10ug/ml extract killed the parasites at 105 ± 3 s ( P < 0.001). Conclusion: In vitro antimiracidia activities of the hydro alcoholic extract of Z. officinale was satisfactory and potent fasciolicide effective, however, in vivo impact of this extract, remains for extra assessment. In this manner, these therapeutic plant extracts might be seen as confident origins of bioactive composites that could be matured against miracidia. This is the main work to evaluate the potential enemy of fasciolicide impact of certain plants against Fasciola miracidia.
  742 97 -
Subtypes identification and frequency of Blastocystis isolated from patients in Kashan, Central Iran
Shirin Khodabakhsh Arbat, Hossein Hooshyar, Mohsen Arbabi, Mahdi Delavari, Sima Rasti, Gholamabbas Mousavi
January-March 2021, 8(1):56-61
Aims: Blastocystis species are one of the most common enteric protist infections in humans and some animals worldwide. Molecular studies have shown that there is a high level of genetic variation among Blastocystis isolates. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes and frequency of Blastocystis isolates in patients who referred to the medical diagnostic laboratories in Kashan, Central Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1118 patients, from December 2017 to June 2018. Fecal specimens were evaluated by the microscopic examination. Positive samples were cultivated in Robinson media. After massive growth and DNA extraction, a 550 bp from the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for subtype identification. The PCR products have been sequenced, identified, and compared at the NCBI site. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16. Results: The frequency of Blastocystis sp. was 8.58%, (confidence interval = 6.94%–10.22%) from which 76% were men and 24% were women. Of the 51 PCR positive samples, ST3 (41.2%), ST1 (39.2%), ST2 (11.8%), and 7.8% isolates were identified as mixed. ST3 and ST1 have been more common. The highest levels of infection were observed in the food-handlers, the age group of 31–40, and people with high school education. Conclusion: The results showed that the frequency of Blastocystis was lower than other studies and the most common Blastocystis subtype was subtype 3, followed by subtype 1, and subtype 2.
  676 75 -
A population-based study on return to work after traumatic injuries
Zahra Sehat, Esmaeil Fakharian, Mojtaba Sehat, Abdollah Omidi
January-March 2021, 8(1):24-30
Background: Trauma is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Most of the people who have trauma are young and in the activity period of living. Trauma is the main cause of disability in the young population. Trauma also affects return to work (RTW). RTW is a specific criterion for trauma evaluation. This study aims to investigate the RTW period after traumatic injuries. Methods: In this cross-sectional study used household survey data collected during a 2018–2019 study on over 15 years in Kashan. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate associations of RTW during 1 year after trauma. Relation between RTW and risk factors was investigated at three levels: preinjury (demographic) factors, injury-related factors, and postinjury factors. Results: In this study, the incidence of trauma in 1000 estimated 70.61 (62.60–78.70) in 1 year. Nearly 77.73% were male. The most mechanism of trauma (51%) was related to traffic accidents. Nearly 9.1% of people with trauma had returned to their daily activities 1–6 days and 7.3% RTW after 7–14 days and 11.2% RTW after 60 days. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicated that time of RTW was related to three levels of factor: preinjury factors, injury-related factors, and postinjury factors. These factors need to be evaluated in larger-scale, long-term studies with more homogeneous samples in terms of the type and the severity of traumas.
  650 84 -
Investigating the environmental status of haloxylon plantations in Aran va bidgol deserts (Isfahan-Iran)
Marzieh Arokh, Reza Nikbakhat, Rouhullah Dehghani, Davarkhah Rabbani, Mohammad Bagher Miranzadeh, Gholam Abbas Moosavi
January-March 2021, 8(1):31-36
Aims: A large part of Iran is located in an arid area that is exposed to the influx of quicksand. This research has been done to investigate the environmental situation of Haloxylon plantations in Aran and Bidgol deserts. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive study. First, 31 plots with Haloxylon and two plots without Haloxylon were selected in Aran and Bidgol deserts, and the parameters of cover density, tree height, wind, humidity, and temperature in those plots were measured. Results: The results showed that 80% of the Haloxylon in the study area was green and 20% of them were dried. Temperatures and wind speed were lower in plots that had Haloxylon and higher humidity than plots without Haloxylon. Conclusion: The data from this study show that the greenness of the Haloxylon was related to the altitude. Moreover, the temperature, humidity, and wind speed had a remarkable relationship with the presence of Haloxylon and the greenness and their height.
  556 70 -
The effectiveness of foliar applications of synthesized zinc-amino acid chelates and ZnSO4 on the nutritional status of wheat plant cultivated in a soil contaminated with Cd and diesel oil
Amir Hossein Baghaie, Mehran Keshavarzi
January-March 2021, 8(1):37-44
Aims: This study was done to evaluate the effectiveness of foliar applications of synthesized zinc-amino acid chelates and ZnSO4 on the nutritional status of wheat plant in a soil contaminated with Cd and diesel oil. Materials and Methods: Treatments were consist of foliar application of Zn amino acid chelate (Zn(Arg)2 and (Zn(His)2) and ZnSO4 at the rate of 0, 0.1, and 0.2% (W/V) in the soil co-contaminated with Cd (0, 10, and 20 mg Cd/kg soil) and diesel oil (0 and 8% [W/W]). Results: Application of Zn amino acid chelates had a significant effect on increasing plant nutrient status, however, soil pollution with Cd and diesel oil had an adverse effect. Based on the results of this study, application of 0.2% (W/V) (Zn(Arg)2 and (Zn(His)2) significantly increased the grain Zn concentration of the plants grown in the soil polluted with Cd (10 mg Cd/kg soil) and diesel oil (8% [W/W]) by 11.3% and 10.1%, respectively. For co-contaminated soil with Cd and diesel oil, it was increased by 9.8%. Soil microbial respiration has affected by Zn amino acid chelate and soil pollution. According to our results, application of 0.2% (W/V) Zn(Arg)2 chelate significantly increased the soil microbial respiration in the soil polluted with Cd (10 mg Cd/kg soil) and diesel oil (8% [W/W]) by 12.5% and 13.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Zn amino acid chelate had a significant effect in increasing plant nutrient status such as Zn and Fe that is a positive point environmental study.
  572 52 -
Epidemiological survey of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Gonbad-e-Kavus, Northern Iran
Farzad Motevalli Haghi, Nasibeh Hosseini-Vasoukolaei, Ghorban Mohammad Ozbaki, Roohollah Siahsarvie, Mahmoud Fazeli-Dinan, Omid Dehghan
January-March 2021, 8(1):51-55
Aims: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most important health problems in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate all aspects of the epidemiology of the disease, including examination of patients, the rate and nature of the disease, and the development of different forms of disease during 2009–2018 in Gonbad-e-Kavus, Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed using epidemiological data, including demographic and clinical features collected from 5638 patients diagnosed with leishmaniasis in health centers affiliated to the Deputy of Health Center of Golestan University of Medical Sciences during 2009–2018. Results: A total number of 5638 individuals were diagnosed with CL over a 10-year period. Considering the population of Golestan, the incidence rate was reported as 137 per 100,000 populations. It was also revealed that most of the cases of CL (86/23%) lived in the villages and the majority of patients (21/46%) were in the age group of 1–4. In addition, most ulcers were observed in the hand (37.7%) and foot (33.1%), respectively. Most of the patients had multiple wounds on the body. The highest incidence was reported in November and the lowest in May. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the endemicity of disease in Gonbad-e-Kavus city during the 10-year study period 2009–2018 was high compared to the average incidence rate of CL in Iran. Therefore, monitoring and emphasizing disease control methods to eliminate leishmaniasis in this city are essential.
  522 59 -
Erratum: The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on the Self.Care and Adherence to Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

January-March 2021, 8(1):62-62
  348 38 -