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   2017| July-September  | Volume 4 | Issue 3  
    Online since November 6, 2017

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Study of electrochemical process effect on detergent removal from polluted water and fish bioassay test of the effluent
Davarkhah Rabbani, Gholam Reza Mostafaii, Vahid Eskandari, Rouhollah Dehghani, Fatemeh Atoof
July-September 2017, 4(3):53-57
Aims: Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is an anionic surfactant which is widely used in household and industrial detergents usage, and after use, it usually finds a way to the wastewater treatment systems. Conventional treatment is not recognized as an efficient method due to the long residence time and enlarged cost. Hence, advanced oxidation processes including electrochemical techniques are important. In this paper, electrochemical degradation of a synthetic solution of LAS with initial concentration 200 ppm has been investigated. Methods: The experiment was performed using eight stainless steel electrodes as cathode and anode with a monopolar arrangement. The effects of current intensity and density were studied as operational parameters on detergent removal efficiency. Results: The maximum removal efficiency 94% was achieved at current intensity equal to 300 mA and current density 6 mA/cm2. The energy consumption was calculated 2.7 ± 0.1 WH/g. The bioassay test showed that only under optimum conditions, 80% of fish was survived until 4 days since the end of the process and the rest were died immediately. All ten fish leaved in unpolluted were survived until 4 days monitoring. Conclusion: The results showed that, by reducing the current density, removal efficiency increases it was true for all current intensities.
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Effect of occupational noise-induced sleep disturbance on worker's health
Milad Abbasi, Mohammad Reza Monnazzam, Seyed Abolfaazl Zakerian, Ahmad Mehri, Maryam Mohammadian Khoshnoud, Arsalan Yousefzadeh
July-September 2017, 4(3):62-67
Aims: In addition to the noise, sleep disturbance (SD) as an outcome of the exposure to the wind turbine noises (WTNs) can adversely affect general health. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SD induced from WTNs on general health indicators. Materials and Methods: A total number of fifty tree workers from Manjil wind farm voluntarily participated in this study. Based on the job similarity and vicinity to the sound sources, workers were classified into three occupational groups including repairman, security, and official staff. Individual's health and sleep status were gathered using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scales, respectively. Noise was measured based on ISO 9612. ANOVA, Chi-square, and linear and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis in the SPSS 20 software environment. Results: The mean values of 8-h equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (LAeq, 8 h) among whole workers was 71 ± 10 dB (A). The averages of somatic symptom, anxiety insomnia, social dysfunction, depression, and general health among the participants were 5 ± 2.44, 7 ± 2.35, 11 ± 2.65, 2 ± 1.54, 22 ± 6.53, and 7.3 ± 3.1, respectively. According to the results, SD and noise exposure had an adverse health effect on physical symptoms, depression, and overall general health of participants. Moreover, SD and work experience were effective factors on anxiety-insomnia. SD had greatest effect on general health when all variables are controlled, so that general health will increase by 2.42 units for each unit increase of SD. Conclusion: We found that in addition to the sound effect, noise-induced SD also affects worker's health and strengthen sound effects on human well-being.
  1,737 179 1
A survey of the perspectives of the female nursing personnel regarding the prevention of low back pain and its appropriate medical treatments
Fereshteh Samadzadeh, Parastoo Yarmohammadi, Nayere Kasiri, Somayeh Haghighat, Peyman Yarmohammadi, Mahsa Salehi, Elahe Piraei
July-September 2017, 4(3):68-73
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the perspectives of the female nurses regarding the prevention and treatment of low back pain (LBP). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 222 female nurses working in Borujen Hospital (situated in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province of Iran) in 2015 selected using simple random sampling. The data were collected using a self-designed questionnaire consisting of 29 items designed in terms of personal information, self-care, awareness, and prevention of LBP. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire was confirmed. Results: About 93.7% of the participants of this study suffered from LBP with a majority of them (21.6%) reporting the monthly episodes of LBP. In terms of actions taken by the nurses when experiencing LBP, it was found that 58.1% of them used to rest during the LBP episodes while 36.5% of them preferred to seek care from a physician, especially a general practitioner. In general, the best-reported ways to ease the LBP were as follows: resting (80.2%), going to doctor (32.4%), and physical exercises (32%), especially practice of back-strengthening exercises. Nearly 53.2% of the nurses proposed that when experiencing LBP, the analgesics should be taken while 44.6% and 1.4% of them believed the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants or drugs can be helpful, respectively. Conclusion: It is very important for the nursing personnel to equip themselves with some information regarding how to manage LBP properly as well as its respective preventive measures so that they can create a healthy work environment for themselves.
  1,638 167 1
The comparison of nurses and families' viewpoint of family-centered caring in Khalkhal Hospital, 2017
Aziz Kamran, Khadijeh Nasiri, Mozhgan Eskandari, Mohammadtaghi Savadpoor, Irandokht Allahyari, Fatemeh Fathollahi, Farzane Lotfi, Samirasadat Najibi
July-September 2017, 4(3):58-61
Introduction: The health is a family- and patient-pivoted system. Families are the elemental source of caring that provides the financial, emotional support, and hygienic services for their patient's relatives and the nurses as a basic individual in the curing team which remedying their patient interfere directly. The present study is with the aim of the comparison of nurses and families' viewpoint toward family-based caring. Methods: The present study is conducted a descriptive-analytic study that was carried out in 2015 on the nurses, and the main companion of the admitted patients occupied nurses in Khalkhal Emam Khomeini Hospital whit sampling method. The utilized instruments were the researcher-made questionnaire. After gathering data, they were analyzed by the SPSS 18 version. Results: The mean and the standard deviation grade of the nurses and the companions' viewpoint of family-pivoted caring are 46.04 ± 7.59 and 38.63 ± 8.86, respectively. In addition, the comparison of the grade of nurses and companions' viewpoint indicates that there is a significant statistical difference between two groups (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The viewpoint of the studied nurses and families toward the family-centered caring are about in the average and weak level. By considering to the increasing tendency of curative services from the curer-pivoted approach toward the family-pivoted services sound that the reinforcement of the attitude and the viewpoint as two main axis of caring, family-pivoted caring, companion, nurses, and family.
  1,313 146 1
Comparing standard interferon and interferon conjugated with polyethylene glycol for treatment of patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus infection
Somayeh Hadipour, Hasan Afzali
July-September 2017, 4(3):74-77
Background: The efficacy of interferon (IFN) has recently improved by the replacement of standard IFN by the type conjugated with polyethylene glycol IFN (PEG IFN). However, the superiority of PEG IFN regimen to therapy with standard IFN remains uncertain. Objectives: The present study aimed to assess and compare the efficacy of the two standard IFN and PEG IFN regimens for the treatment of patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted as a retrospective, cohort study assessing 138 consecutive patients diagnosed as a case infected chronically with HBV. The patients were randomly assigned to receive standard IFN regimen (n = 71) intravenously or PEG IFN regimen (n = 67) intravenously for total 24 weeks. All patients were monitored monthly regarding serum aminotransferase level and hepatitis B e antigen (HBe-Ag) positivity as the viral load. Results: Overall, 8.4% in standard IFN group and 10.4% in PEG IFN responded to the treatment regimens with no between-group difference (P = 0.715). The response to treatment protocols was independent to gender, age, and viral load. In addition, 66.7% responded to standard IFN regimen, and 42.9% responded to PEG IFN regimen were positive for HBe-Ag with no difference between the two protocols (P = 0.639). Adjusted for HBe-Ag positivity, the type of IFN used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection could not be effective factor (odds ratio = 0.792, P = 0.690). Conclusion: Our study could not demonstrate the superiority of PEG IFN to standard IFN for treating chronic HBV infection.
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