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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study of the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relation of parenting styles with social participation of adolescents
Mohammad Hadi Shahsavari, Zabih Pirani, Davood Taghvaee, Mansour Abdi
April-June 2021, 8(2):63-67
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_108_20  
Aim: Social participation is necessary for the development process of adolescents. It is crucial to gain maturity through the social activities. Social activities lead to an individual who knows their abilities and actualizes their talents. This study aims to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relation of parenting styles with the social participation of adolescents. Materials and Methods: The research has been carried out by the correlational method. The statistical population included all high school students of Arak. The sample of the study consisted of 510 students (255 boys and 255 girls) who were selected through the cluster sampling method. The instruments of gathering the data were Bumrind's parenting styles questionnaire, Sherer's general self-efficacy scale, and Branigan's eagerness to participate in social activities. Data analysis was performed using the structural equation method with Smart Partial Least Square software(SmartPLS GmbH, New York, USA). Results: The results showed that the direct effect of the permissive parenting style on social participation and its indirect effect through self-efficacy mediation (P <0.05), the direct effect of authoritarian parenting style on social participation, and its indirect effect through self-efficacy mediation (P <0.05), and finally, the direct effect of the authoritative parenting style on social participation and its indirect effect through self-efficacy mediation on social participation was statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusions: According to the findings, it concluded that self-efficacy plays a significant mediating role in the relationship between parenting styles and the social participation of adolescents. Application and theoretical implications are discussed.
  9,229 214 -
The relationship between perceived social support and self-care behaviors in patients with ischemic heart disease
Malihe Abbasi, Khadijeh Yazdi, Ali Kavosi, Hamid Reza Azimi, Zahra Mehrbakhsh
April-June 2021, 8(2):68-73
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_133_20  
Aims: Investigators have identified sufficient self-care as an important factor in reducing health-care costs and improving health outcomes in cardiac patients. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and self-care behaviors (SCBs) in patients with ischemic heart disease. Materials and Methods: The present work was a cross-sectional study. Patients with ischemic heart disease were selected using the convenience sampling method. Data gathering tools used in this study were questionnaires of Zimet multidimensional social support and Miller self-care. The data were analyzed in SPSS 18 software using Spearman's correlation and Mann–Whitney tests by significant coefficient <0.05. Results: It was revealed that income, ethnicity, gender, and the type of employment had significant effects on the scores of PSS and SCBs. The mean score of PSS was 44.60 ± 14.30 and that of SCBs for all the patients was calculated at 67.12 ± 17.04. The majority of the patients had a high score of PSS, while, in case of SCBs, the score showed an undesirable condition. The results revealed a direct and significant relationship between PSS and SCBs in patients with ischemic heart disease (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The score of PSS was in a satisfactory range; the unsuitable score of SCBs showed an urgent need of providing education for myocardial ischemia patients to improve the level of their self-care affairs. In addition, the caretakers of the patient should be trained to pay attention to all the important aspects of PSS.
  7,868 106 -
Investigation of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of nursing, midwifery, and surgical technology students regarding standard precautions and self-protection in the clinical setting
Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery, Mahdieh Sabery, Zahra Ghadirzade, Fateme Nematian
April-June 2021, 8(2):74-78
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_130_20  
Background: Due to the nature of their academic field and clinical training, students of nursing, midwifery, and surgical technology are exposed to the risk of damages due to sharp instruments, blood, and body fluids. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of students of nursing, midwifery, and surgical technology about standard precautions and self-protection in the clinical settings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Nursing and Midwifery School of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, 2018. A total of 300 students were selected through nonprobability quota sampling. A four-part questionnaire was used to collect the data on the students' characteristics, and their knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the special safety percussions. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and SPSS software version 16. Results: No significant connection was found between the students' knowledge, attitudes, and practice and their demographic characteristics. Most students had a moderate level of knowledge about self-protection in the clinical setting. None of the students had good knowledge and compliance with safety principles. A significant correlation was found between knowledge and attitudes (P = 0.01, r = 0.14) and between attitudes and practice (P = 0.00, r = 0.29). No significant correlation was found between the students' knowledge and practice (P = 0.52, r = 0.037). Conclusions: Acquisition of a moderate level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice indicates that the students were familiar with the concepts examined; nonetheless, this level may not suffice for appropriate and safe practice in the clinical setting.
  6,906 102 -
The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on improving self-concept, depression, and anxiety in obese women
Elham Keyvani, Mustafa Bolghan-Abadi
April-June 2021, 8(2):79-83
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_117_20  
Aims: Obesity can be considered as one of the most complex causes of psychological disorders. Various treatments have been performed to reduce the severity of the disorders in people with obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on improving self-concept, depression, and anxiety in obese women. Materials and Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental (pretest and posttest design with control group). The statistical population of the study included all obese women referred to psychological clinics in Mashhad in 2019. Twenty-four obese women were evaluated. Twelve women in the experimental group received eight sessions of ACT and the other 12 women in the control group (waiting list) did not receive any intervention. The results of Beck's self-concept, depression, and anxiety scales were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Findings: The results of MANCOVA showed that ACT on the level of self-concept and its components (assessment of mental ability, job efficiency, attractiveness, and social skills) as well as reducing the severity of depression and anxiety is effective (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The ACT can be effective as an appropriate intervention to increase the positive assessment of self-concept and reduce the severity of depression and anxiety in obese women. The implications of the study are discussed.
  6,512 141 -
Predictive factors of home-related injuries among patients admitted to the emergency departments
Mahdieh Sabery, Mansour Dianati, Hossein Akbari
April-June 2021, 8(2):84-89
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_96_20  
Background: Home-related accidents are the main health problem and the second frequent reason of morbidity and mortality after road accidents. This study aimed to determine the status of home injuries and related factors during 2018–2019 in Kashan, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012–2013, in Kashan, convenience sampling method was used and patients referred to the emergency department who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and t-test also for multivariate analysis logistic regression analysis was used. Results: The number 939 questionnaires were completed in total, that 420 were male. There was a statistically significant between age, job, educational level, place of reference, primary cause, mechanism and type of injury, medical diagnosis, and patients' hospitalization. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the effective factors such as the place of referral (Shahid Behest Hospital) (odds ratio [OR] =1.923, P < 0.001), past medical history (OR = 4.280, P = 0.015), cut and sharp instrument (OR = 2.104, P = 0.006), falling (OR = 1.626, P = 0.022), and fracture (OR = 2.781, P < 0.001) have increased the risk of hospitalization. Conclusions: This study provides novel evidence suggesting predictive variables of home accidents are associated with the outcome of hospitalization. Therefore, educational programs and specific interventions should focus on predictive factors to prevent of home accidents.
  5,462 81 -
Relationship between knowledge of ergonomics and workplace condition with musculoskeletal disorders among nurses
Afshar Mohammad, Bahrami Abbas, Hamedian Narges
July-September 2019, 6(3):121-126
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_10_19  
Aims: Using ergonomics principles are effective on increasing production, job satisfaction productivity, and reducing medical and healing costs. This study investigated the relationship between nurses' knowledge of ergonomic principles with their musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Materials and Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was performed on 260 nurses working in selected hospital in Kashan/Iran, 2018. The nurses were randomly recruited to the study. Data were collected through personal profile questionnaires, knowledge of the ergonomics of the workplace, the questionnaire of the workplace ergonomics, and Nordic skeletal musculoskeletal questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 16 software. Descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Pearson's correlation coefficient) were used for data analysis. Results: The nursing staff had low level of knowledge with a mean score of (2.20 ± 0.68). The ergonomic condition of the nurses' work environment was weak (2.50 ± 0.76). About 77% of participants reported the MSD (neck 62.7% and shoulder pain 49.2%) and the least difficulty was in the elbow region (20.4%). There was a significant and negative correlation between knowledge of ergonomics principles (r = −0.180) and ergonomics condition of the workplace (r = −0.160) with musculoskeletal injuries. Conclusion: The study findings indicated low level of knowledge of the nurses regarding the ergonomics of workplace principles. Furthermore, results showed the ergonomics of the workplace was poor. The prevalence of MSD was high, which needs appropriate training and respecting ergonomics principles in the workplace.
  3,537 431 1
Ochratoxin a in food products in Iran: A systematic review of the evidence
Reza Sharafati Chaleshtori, Elham Salehi
April-June 2018, 5(2):25-32
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_4_18  
Aims: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic metabolite, which is produced by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. This mold growth increases in abuse adequate moisture and temperature in food storage time and produces mycotoxins. The aim of this study was the evaluation of OTA in various foods with reviews of other studies in Iran from 2000 to 2016. Instrument and Methods: The literature was evaluated by searching the electronic databases of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, SID, Science Direct, Iran Medex, Magiran, and Google scholar. Results: Based on obtained results, the breakfast cereal, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut, almond, white grape juice, white pepper, dried sour cherry, dried peach, and dried pineapple samples were not contaminated with OTA. In the conducted studies, the highest rate of the contamination with OTA was in grape juice, raisin, black and red pepper, fig, dried quince, and coconut samples. Conclusion: The results showed that the most contaminated samples had OTA levels lower than the Iranian national standards and European Union regulations. Nevertheless, it seems necessary to focus on the reduction of mold contamination and OTA in various foods in Iran.
  3,369 388 1
Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on intolerance of uncertainty, experiential avoidance, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder in individuals with Type II diabetes
Esmat Fayazbakhsh, Ahmad Mansouri
January-March 2019, 6(1):30-35
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_52_18  
Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on intolerance of uncertainty (IU), experiential avoidance (EA), and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in individuals with type II diabetes. Materials and Methods: This study was quasi-experimental study with pretest/posttest design. In this study, 24 individuals with type II diabetes were selected by convenience sampling method and then randomly designed into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in eight sessions of ACT, while the control group was not in any treatment. The participants completed GAD 7-item scale, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, IU scale, and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance. The significance level was 0.05. Results: The findings showed that ACT decreased the IU, EA, and symptoms of GAD in an individual with type II diabetes (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that ACT might be an efficient way to decrease the IU, EA, and symptoms of GAD in an individual with type II diabetes. Furthermore, therapists can use this therapeutic approach for decreasing IU, EA, and symptoms of GAD in the individual with type II diabetes.
  3,119 378 -
Effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for child on bullying behaviors among children
Marjan Faraji, Siavash Talepasand, Isaac Rahimian Boogar
January-March 2019, 6(1):52-57
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_54_18  
Aims: Bullying is an ever-increasing phenomenon in schools and it has far-reaching consequences on children and adolescents, for which necessary measures must be taken to prevent and reduce it. This study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for child (MBCT-C) on bullying behavior among children. Materials and Methods: the population of this study consisted of Grade 3 through 5 students in Kashan town in 2017–2018 school years. The sample consisted of 20 students who had been selected by inclusion and exclusion criteria. The conventional sampling method was used. A quasi-experimental design was used in this study. Participants completed the Illinois Bullying Scale before and after the intervention of experimental and control groups. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Results: The findings showed that MBCT-C had a significant effect on bullying behavior reduction and the effect size in this intervention was 0.89. Furthermore, results from individual mean scores in bullying scale questions indicated that in pretest both experimental and control groups, “excluding others from in a group of friends” was the most frequent behavior and mindfulness training had effectively the highest effect on decreasing this character. Conclusion: It suggests that intervention concerning diminishing bullying behaviors may start with mindfulness training.
  2,980 410 4
Effect of aerobic exercise on some parameters of cardiovascular health among male problem gamblers
Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu
October-December 2019, 6(4):115-121
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_55_19  
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess some parameters of cardiovascular health among male problem gamblers and the possible effect of long-term participation in aerobic exercise training on the parameters. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixty-eight male volunteers aged between 35 and 55years, were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial, they were confirmed as problem gamblers from the results obtained from the analysis of the South Oaks Gambling Screen. After the exclusion of 168 participants, 200 participants were randomly assigned to the control group(n=100) and treatment group(n=100), respectively. Body mass index(BMI), waist circumference(WC), heart rate(HR), systolic blood pressure(SBP), and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) were measured. Participants in the treatment group participated in a supervised vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise training program; jogging for 30min/day at an estimated intensity of 6.32 metabolic equivalents, three times/week, consistently for 1year. Data were analyzed using the SPSS(version20 Armonk, NY, USA), and significant difference was determined at the level of P <0.05. Results: The findings from this study shows statistically significant improvements in BMI(control: 27.18±0.52, treatment: 21.73±0.30, P <0.000), SBP(control: 134.35±1.63, treatment: 110.69±1.11, P <0.000), DBP(control: 89.18±1.16, treatment: 77.14±0.52, P <0.000), HR(control: 76.85±0.70, treatment: 72.06±0.25, P <0.000), and WC(control: 91.14±0.78, treatment: 86.26±0.41, P <0.000) among participants in the treatment group compared to the control group. Conclusion: Vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise training led to a statistically significant decrease in BMI, SBP, DBP, HR, and WC among male problem gamblers.
  3,027 261 -
The effect of active and passive recovery on creatine kinase and C-reactive protein after an exercise session in football players
Mohammad Saeed Mostafavi Darani, Bahram Abedi, Hoseyn Fatolahi
January-March 2018, 5(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_31_17  
Aims: One of the important issues in the context of exercise physiology is apply the best recovery methods completely after intense physical activities. Recovery methods will decrease the risk of muscle damage and subsequent inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the recovery procedures on changes of creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) after an exercise session simulated in professional football players. Methods: Thirty Iran's Azadegan League football players were participated in this research (age: 22.4 ± 2.38, height: 179.1 ± 2.63 cm, weight: 68.5 ± 4.82 kg, body mass index: 21.5 ± 2.10 kg/m2). After exercise protocol, simulation team randomly divided the participants into three groups (n = 10) under an active recovery on land, floating in the cold water (10°C), and passive recovery for 12 min. The levels of serum CK and CRP were collected immediately, 24 h, and 48 h after the exercise protocol. Findings: The results showed a significant decrease in CK and CRP after training in cold-water immersion method comparing to the other methods (P < 0.05). In addition, the level of CRP was significantly less than passive recovery 48 h postexercise recovery (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that if recovery in cold water was used immediately after exercise, much better results are obtained in future periods. This means that immersion method in cold water probably leads to decreased signs of muscle soreness and inflammatory responses in male football players.
  2,730 339 2
Modeling the consequences of accidents during the process of transferring waste thinner from the paint shop of an automotive industry using aloha software
Masoud Allahyari Mehrabani, Samira Ghiyasi
July-September 2018, 5(3):55-61
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_8_18  
Aims: During the past decade, the application of engineering and managerial techniques for designing a variety of qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods and modeling the consequences of accidents have had a great contribution to the promotion of safety in the industrial systems. The present study was conducted to identify and prioritize safety risks in one of the automotive industries. Risk management of the operation of transferring waste thinner from the paint shop represents a critical issue owing to special safety. Materials and Methods: One of the most important theories for the modeling of events is the bowtie analyzing method. Bowtie is a qualitative analyzing method which incorporates managerial system techniques and provides a highly accurate analysis in the form of fault and event trees. In the present study, the process of risk identification and management was carried out using the Bowtie analyzing method and the obtained results were applied to the structure of a bowtie graph and the consequence was modeled using ALOHA software. Results: In the study, the operation of transferring waste thinner from the paint shop of an automotive industry was examined. Possible safety risks that may happen during the loading and unloading operations of the waste thinners were detected using bowtie analyzing method and the modeling of fire at chemical tanker carrying thinner and also the modeling of BLEVE phenomenon was conducted. The results represent that the area, in which employees are stationed is at very high risk that in the event of a possible fire, the personnel will be quickly caught in fireballs caused by the burning of thinner. Conclusion: According to the results, it was found that one of the administrative units is positioned inappropriately and incorrectly in the vicinity of thinner loading station that in the case of nondisplacement of the mentioned unit and the incident of fire or explosion in the place of loading and unloading of thinner, undoubtedly there would be fire at the mentioned administrative unit.
  2,716 346 2
Ergonomic relationship during work in nursing staff of intensive care unit with operating room
Yousef Mahmoudifar, Bayaneh Seyedamini
April-June 2017, 4(2):42-47
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_16_17  
Background and Objectives: High prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, especially in jobs such as nursing which covers tasks like patients' repositioning, has attracted great attentions from occupational healthcare experts to necessitate the knowledge of ergonomic science. Therefore, this study was performed aiming at ergonomic relationship during work in nursing staff of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with operating room. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study (cohort), fifty personnel of ICU staff and fifty of operating room staff were selected through a census method and were assessed using tools such as Nordic questionnaire and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) standards in terms of body posture ergonomics. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software and Chi-Square test after collection. Results: The most complaints were from the operating room group (68%) and ICU staff (60%) for the lumbar musculoskeletal system. There was a significant relationship between the total REBA scores of body, legs, neck, arm, force status, load fitting with hands and static or dynamic activities in the operating room and ICU staff groups (P < 0.05). In operating room and ICU groups, most subjects obtained score 11–15 and very high-risk level. Conclusion: Nurses working at operating room and ICU ward are subjected to high-risk levels and occupational injuries which is dramatically resulted from inappropriate body posture or particular conditions of their works. As a result, taking corrective actions along with planning and identifying ways will help prohibiting the prevalence of disorders in the future.
  2,595 329 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Modeling and designing indices of talent identification in the field of basketball based on physical-motor, psychological, anthropometric, and physiological parameters
Keshavarz Loghman, Farahani Aboalfazl, Zarei Bidsorkhi Ali
April-June 2019, 6(2):59-64
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_58_18  
Aims: The purpose of this study was to modeling and designing indices of talent identification (TID) in the field of basketball based on physical-motor, psychological, anthropometric, and physiological parameters. Materials and Methods: The research method was qualitative (grounded theory) that was done on the field by interpretive analysis of deep interviews, including 21 experts in; TID (among professional clubs), basketball coaches (among premier league), and university professors (among professors of Tehran University, Shahid Beheshti University, and Kharazmi University). The validity of the interviews was confirmed by verifying the views of experts in the final results, and the reliability of the interviews was also confirmed through process audits and intrasubject agreement of two coders (84%). The analysis of interviews was done through interpretive analysis technique using open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. Results: As a result of the analysis of the interviews, 10 categories, 30 subcategories, and 101 key concepts were extracted. After axial and selective coding of the categories, a paradigm model was presented for TID in basketball. Conclusions: Finally, further explanations and suggestions are provided for each of the categories.
  2,558 310 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Impact of multimodal preoperative preparation program on parental anxiety
Priya Reshma Aranha, Larissa Martha Sams, Prakash Saldanha
January-March 2018, 5(1):6-10
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_24_17  
Background: Hospitalization and surgery are stressful experiences for children and their parents. Therefore, preoperative preparation of parents becomes essential. Objective: The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of multimodal preoperative preparation program (MPPP) on parental anxiety, to find the association of parental anxiety with the selected demographic variables of parents, and to measure the satisfaction of parents regarding the preparation of children for surgery. Materials and Methods: A quasiexperimental study was conducted in a selected multispecialty hospital. Using the purposive sampling technique, a total of 110 parents of children in the age group 8–12 years were assigned to control (n = 55) and intervention (n = 55) groups, respectively. The MPPP was administered to intervention group. The parents in the control group received the routine preoperative care. Parental anxiety was assessed on admission before shifting the child to operation theater 6 h, 12 h, and 48 h after surgery whereas the parental satisfaction was measured at 48 h after surgery. Results: The mean scores of parental anxiety were significantly lower in the intervention group than that of control group (P < 0.05). Parents in the intervention group had significantly higher satisfaction level than that of control group (P < 0.05). The study did not find any significant association between the parental anxiety and selected demographic variables of parents. Conclusion: The MPPP is effective in reducing parental anxiety and can be effectively used in pediatric surgical units to prepare the parents for their child's surgery.
  2,464 306 2
Investigation on the relationship between mental workload and musculoskeletal disorders among nursing staff
Yousef Mahmoudifar, Bayaneh Seyedamini
January-March 2018, 5(1):16-20
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_33_17  
Aims: High prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts between nursing staff. High level of workload is considered as a serious problem and identified as a stressor in the nursing. This study intends to recognize the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload in nursing personnel reside at southern part of West Azerbaijan province Iran in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 100 nurses working in West Azerbaijan hospitals have been randomly selected. Nordic and National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index workload questionnaires have been simultaneously utilized as data collection tools. Data analysis has also carried out using SPSS, variance analysis tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Results suggest that the most frequent complaints of musculoskeletal problems are associated to the back area. Investigation on sextet scales of mental workload indicates that each of the six scales of workload was at the high-risk level and the average of total workload was 72.45 ± 19.45 which confirms a high-risk level. Pearson's correlation coefficient also indicates mental workload elements have a significant relationship with musculoskeletal disorders (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest there is a relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload and the majority of personnel had mental workload with high-risk level. The best way of management planning to mitigate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders arising of mental workload is, therefore, managing-controlling approach such as staff training, job rotation, and time management.
  2,331 343 -
CASE REPORT
Unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy masquerading as malignant neoplasm: Actinomycosis – The Culprit
Pinki Pandey, Megha Ralli, Savita Agarwal, Ranjan Agarwal
January-March 2018, 5(1):21-23
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_25_17  
Actinomycosis is an infrequent bacterial infection encountered nowadays, caused by anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium of Actinomyces species. We report an unusual case of a unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy in a 40-year-old male, caused by actinomycosis masquerading as malignant tumor. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of actinomycosis causing unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy have previously been published. Since this anaerobic organism is difficult to culture, the diagnosis is made by observing its associated sulfur granules in the biopsy specimens. Still, actinomycosis represents an important entity in today's context as it is the great masquerader of the head-and-neck lesions because of its myriad presentation that may mimic other common diseases, the difficulties involved in its diagnosis, and the long course of treatment mandatory to eradicate the disease.
  2,455 201 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sleep quality and related factors among the nurses of the Hospital of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Zahra Sepehrmanesh, Gholamabbas Mousavi, Hamidreza Saberi, Rezvan Saei
January-March 2017, 4(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_8_17  
Aim: Sleep and rest are the essential physiological needs of human. Nurses are at risk of developing sleep problems than others because of having various shift work. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sleep quality and related factors in the nurses. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 nurses were selected randomly from Shahid Beheshti Educational Hospital of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, 2016. Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index and demographic questionnaire were used for the detection of sleep quality. Results: The mean age of cases was 51.31 years, and most of them (73%) were female. The majority of them had rotating shift work and worked over 150 h per month. 95.5% (191 cases) of them had poor sleep quality. The mean total score of sleep quality in females was higher than males (P = 0.04). The nurses with rotating shift work had higher mean total score of sleep quality than nurses with fixed shift work. Nurses with over 150 h per month had more problems in daily function than others (P = 0.04). Conclusion: These results present that the majority of the nurses had poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality could be affect function, mental and physical health, and secondary effect delivery service to patients. Therefore, attention to this issue and strategies for improved sleep quality is necessary.
  2,239 271 4
Assessment of physical, psychological, social, and environmental health domains of quality of life in female students living in dormitories of Qom University of Medical Sciences
Elaheh Rahiminia, Hoorieh Rahiminia, Gholamreza Sharifirad
October-December 2017, 4(4):93-96
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_18_17  
Aims: Considering significant number of students, especially female students consisting young stratum of the society, there is the increased possibility of mental damages and the direct effect it can have on their quality of life (QOL). The present study aimed to investigate the QOL in female students living in dormitories of the University of Medical Sciences in Qom University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2016 on 300 students of the Qom University of Medical Sciences selected using quota sampling. Data gathering tool was the World Health Organization QOL-BREF questionnaire containing 26 items. Statistical data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics of SPSS software. Results: In general, the mean score of students in the four domains of QOL was respectively related to physical health (14.42 ± 2.42), social health (13.30 ± 3.33), environmental health (13.11 ± 2.95), and psychological health (13 ± 2.81), and also, there was a significant relationship between QOL and age (P < 0.0001), discipline (P < 0.04), economic status (P < 0.0001), and interest in discipline (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that the lowest area of QOL was associated with psychological health; therefore, to increase the QOL in this dimension; the periodical evaluation of the mental health is recommended. Appropriate training to create psychological adjustment in student dormitories can also improve the QOL.
  2,255 194 2
The effects of weight-bearing exercise on postural control and fatigue index of elderly males
Morteza Taheri, Khadijeh Irandoust, Shaghayegh Moddaberi
October-December 2019, 6(4):122-125
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_22_19  
Aims: Functional decline in activities of daily living caused by chronic fatigue and postural control weakness are common symptoms of aging that needed to be considered. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of weight-bearing exercise(WBE) on postural control and Fatigue Index of elderly males. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two elderly men of Qazvin City were volunteered to participate in the research and were allocated randomly into the two groups of either WBE(n=26; 67.3±2.4years) or control group(n=26; 68.1±2.9years). Functional test including maximal tolerance to treadmill walking(MTW) and test ofBlood Lactate Acid Concentration(BLA) were considered as Fatigue Index before and after exercise intervention.In addition, good balance test was used to measure postural balance via static and dynamic balance. The exercise group performed(WBE) in a seven consecutive day, lasting 30min in a session. Independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data at the significance level of 0.05. Results: The results suggested that both functional test(MTW[P=0.003]; BLA[P=0.02]) and postural control(static balance index[P=0.001]; dynamic balance indices[P=0.001]) were significantly improved in exercise group compared to control group. Conclusion: It appears that WBE would improve the functional performance of daily activities(postural control and fatigue tolerance) in the geriatric population.
  1,690 737 1
Increasing trend of pediculosis (Pediculus Humanus Capitis) in Lamerd, Farashband, and Marvdasht Cities, Southern Iran
Zahra Soltani, Davood Keshavarzi
April-June 2018, 5(2):38-42
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_36_17  
Aim: The aim of this study was to report the trend of pediculosis among people in Lamerd, Farashband, and Marvdasht cities, Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective study of patients with a definite diagnosis of Pediculus humanus capitis in 2012–2015. Information recorded for each patient included the gender, age, residence, and the season of diagnosis. Results: In Lamerd, Marvdasht, and Farashband, the total numbers of pediculosis cases were 1675, 954, and 509 cases, respectively. In those three cities, the highest number of cases was found in the year 2015 (1568 n) and lowest was in 2012 (431 n). This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In all cities, the number of females (2921 n) was higher than males (217 n) (P < 0.05). The highest prevalence of disease was seen in female children between the ages of 6–12 years (1787 n) while the lowest prevalence was seen in male children <6 years old (8 n). Considering the residence, the majority of cases in Marvdasht (549 n) and Farashband (401 n) were from urban areas, and the difference was statistically significant only in the city of Farashband. In those cities, totally, the highest and lowest number of cases was observed in the autumn and summer, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that the disease trend is increasing in recent years. Advance in socioeconomic conditions and also implementing health education programs for kids, parents, and sick people may help in controlling this disease.
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Comparison of the effectiveness of the schema therapy training and mindfulness on intimacy, commitment, and happiness of women with couple burnout
Forough Farshidmanesh, Hosein Davoudi, Hasan Heidari, Mehdi Zare Bahramabadi
October-December 2019, 6(4):136-142
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_51_19  
Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of schema therapy education and mindfulness on couple intimacy, commitment, and happiness of women with couple burnout. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed as pretest-posttest with a control group. The population included all women with couple burnout who were referred to the charity of association Baghiyato Allah Al-Azam of Khomeini Shahrin 2018. From this population, 36 people were selected by available sampling method and were randomly assigned to three groups, namely schema therapy(12 individuals), mindfulness(12 individuals), and control(12 individuals). Both experimental groups received eight 90-min training sessions. The study instruments were Couple Intimacy Scale, Couple Commitment Scale, Couple Happiness Scale, and Couple Burnout Scale. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using multivariate covariance analysis and one-way covariance analysis. Results: The findings showed a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in intimacy(P=0.001, F=20.84), commitment(P=0.001, F=30.52), and couple happiness(P=0.001, F=47.85) in the posttest phase. In addition, there was no significant difference between the effectiveness of two schema and mindfulness therapies on intimacy, there was a significant difference in commitment and couple happiness. Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that the schema and mindfulness therapies can increase the level of intimacy, commitment, and couple happiness. Therefore, it is recommended that therapists use these approaches as an effective treatment for enhancing intimacy, commitment, and couple happiness.
  2,057 223 -
Indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and sick building syndrome symptoms in office workers of petroleum industry health organization
Mohammad Javad Jafari, Ali Asghar Khajevandi, Fahimeh Karamali, Fatemeh Zabeti
July-September 2018, 5(3):82-85
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_27_18  
Aims: High prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts. High prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts and Work-related absenteeism between office workers. The aims of this study were to assess the association of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations with SBS prevalence among employees in two office buildings of Petroleum Industry Health Organization in Tehran city. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 170 employees of the two office buildings of Petroleum Industry Health Organization in Tehran city have been selected. HSE questionnaire was combined with Skov's questionnaire as data collection tools. Questionnaire data analysis has also carried out using SPSS and Chi-square independent sample t-test. CO2concentrations were measured using calibrated instruments. Results: The results suggested that the CO2concentration in both buildings is higher than the threshold limit. CO2concentration was significantly associated with some symptoms such as dry throat (P = 0.028), shortness of breath (P = 0.028), nasal irritation (P = 0.008), dizziness (P = 0.0312), headache (P = 0.0315), nausea (P = 0.049), and sickness (P = 0.023). Conclusion: The prevalence of syndrome symptoms in women was higher than men. Some of SBS symptoms were exacerbated by increasing CO2concentrations among the employee.
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Effect of distance learning on (health worker) behvarz knowledge level in comparison with other health teams of Kashan, health care systems in the field of PHC (Primary Health Care) 2014
Zohre Rajabi, Monika Motaghi
April-June 2018, 5(2):33-37
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_29_17  
Background: Health education is the first and most important step in health care. Then, it is necessary to pay attention to personnel training. Methods: The research population is all employees of Kashan University of Medical Sciences who were selected through the census. Educational pamphlets were sent to the centers and the first test was held. After 2 months, the test was resumed. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and paired t-test. Results: The highest percentage of correct responses by groups of community health workers, technicians, and experts struggles with illness, family health expert technicians, and midwives-related topic drugs are estimated to be in the home health. The lowest percentage of correct answers was to issues related to physical activity pyramid, pyramid charts, and knowledge of physical activity. The findings of this study showed that there was no significant difference between the study groups with community health workers' knowledge of aging issues, depression, health, miracle foods, drugs, home health assessment, and cough natural asthma in children, bandages and dressings, child abuse, thalassemia research on home health care, quality improvement, empowerment, injection safety, physical activity, and oral health pyramid (in 80% of paired comparisons between groups of the worker). Conclusion: Due to the lack of significant differences between knowledge community health workers and other health team members in most comparisons of educational programs in primary health care for health professionals, it seems that university education should be done with higher qualifications for high academic degrees and if we learn more to community health workers, we can expect high performance from them.
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Antibacterial activity of different extracts of prawn shell (Macrobrachium nipponense) against human bacterial pathogens
Katayoon Karimzadeh, Masoumeh Pormehr
January-March 2017, 4(1):13-16
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_6_17  
Aims: Bioactive compounds existing in crustacean shells have the potential to inhibit the growth of some pathogenic microorganism. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different extracts of prawn shells (Macrobrachium nipponense) on some human pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Sampling (prawn) was conducted in summer 2014 from Anzali wetland in southern coast of Caspian Sea. Then, the hydroalcoholic, methanolic, and acetone extracts of prawn shells were applied for this purpose. Two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli) were used as test organisms. The antibacterial activity was determined by paper disk diffusion. Results: The prawn shell extracts showed activity against pathogenic bacteria. The highest antibacterial activities were measured in B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae with the zone of inhibition being 12.12 ± 0.32 mm, 12.51 ± 0.14 mm, and 12.35 ± 0.27 mm, respectively. Among all the strains, S. aureus exhibits a significant zone of inhibition against all extracts (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that different prawn shell extracts, particularly hydroalcoholic, have bactericidal effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae species.
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