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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2022
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-75

Online since Tuesday, March 29, 2022

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Pedestrians: The vulnerable forgotten road users p. 1
Masoud Motalebi, Mehrdad Mahdian
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Investigating the status of fatigue and the factors affecting it among women workers in Iran: A cross-sectional study in Kashan 2018 p. 3
Hamid Reza Saberi, Mahdi Malakoutikhah, Seyed Gholam Abbas Mousavi, Fatemeh Safiyeh, Sima Memarnejad, Maryam Sarafrazian
Aims: Fatigue is a state in which a person's energy is completely depleted due to excessive physical or mental work. In addition to the importance of women workers and the effects of fatigue on them, limited studies have been conducted in this field in the world, especially in Iran. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of fatigue and related factors among women workers in one of the cities of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among women workers in Kashan in 2018. The sample size was 265 participants from 300 workers. The data collection tool was the multidimensional fatigue inventory questionnaire. Data were analyzed via SPSS version 16. Results: The lowest and highest total score was 38 and 78, respectively. The mean score of activity decrease was 11.78, which was the highest score among questionnaire. Factors such as overtime, number of children, and work experience showed a statistically significant relationship with the total fatigue score (P < 0.05). Conclusion: According to the results, a large percentage of participants had a high score of fatigue. Managements should identify and modify the factors affecting fatigue to reduce the worker's fatigue. It seems that further studies are needed to reveal the relationship between fatigue and other variables to provide a deeper understanding of the causes of fatigue.
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Case series of sudden death in sports from the year 2004 to 2020 in the city of Kashan, Iran: An education prospective p. 9
Mansour Sayyah, Faeze Tohiditabar, Mohammmad Sadegh Pourabbasi
Aim: The aim of this study is to study the frequency of sudden death in sports from the year 2004–2020 in the city of Kashan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This case series research included fatal sports injuries from the years 2004 to year 2020. Anecdotal data were collected by interviewing different sports organizations and close relatives of the victims. Result: The result of descriptive analysis of collected data showed that 17 cases of sudden sports death occurred during the years 2004 until 2020. The highest frequency of the cases occurred in mountain claiming with 9 (52.9%), followed by swimming with 3 (17.6%), and handball with 2 (11.8%), horse riding 1 (5.9%), basketball 1 (5.9%), and martial arts 1 (5.9%). All the analysis was performed using the SPSS: pc version 21. Conclusion: Fatal sports injuries are rare; however, they occur incidentally due to poor knowledge and education of the sport participants. It was concluded that nearly all fatal incidents were preventable.
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Causes of road accidents in northwestern iran in the period 2010–2018 p. 14
Hamid Reza Mehryar, Narges Alizadeh, Fatemeh Rostampour, Sahar Paryab, Sattar Bab, Omid Garkaz
Aims: Traffic accidents are one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the causes of road accidents in northwestern Iran in the period of 2010–2018. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on all road traffic accidents recorded by traffic police of West Azerbaijan Province during 2010–2018. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square t-test, and time series by SPSS 16. Results: A total of 95,788 registered accidents were included in the study. Most of the accidents were in September with the frequency of 9960 cases (10.4%), in residential, office, and industrial regions 58,550 (56%), by cars and taxi 80,949 (66%), in collisions between a vehicle with a bicycle and a motorcycle 56,728 (58%), in front-to-rear and right-side crashes 49,714 (47%), in rural and main roads 59,855 (62%), in clean weather 73,887 (73%), and on Thursday 14891 (15%); the occurrence of traffic accidents showed a significant relationship with all of these variables (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Month of accident, type of accident, day of the week, location of accident, use of vehicle, type of collision, mode of collision, accident path, and weather were the effective factors contributing in the occurrence of the traffic accidents. It is suggested that, in addition to educating people regarding the prevention of traffic accidents, policymakers take steps to improve the safety and standardization of roads and increase the safety of vehicles.
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Antileishmanial activity of auranofin against Leishmania major in vitro p. 20
Mohammad Ezati Mehmandust Olya, Mahdi Delavari, Mohsen Arbabi, Sima Rasti, Hossein Hooshyar, Morteza Salimian
Aim: Despite the various studies done in the field of cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment, there is still no perfect and safe drug for definite treatment of this disease. Therefore, the quest to find an appropriate drug continues. Previous studies have shown that auranofin has anti-leishmanial activity; therefore, in this study; the effect of auranofin on Leishmania major was studied. Materials and Methods: Effectiveness of four concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 μg/ml) of auranofin on L. major was studied. After culturing amastigotes and promastigotes of the parasite, IC50 was calculated. The ability of auranofin to induce apoptosis in promastigotes was evaluated, and the degree of fragmentation of promastigotes DNA after treatment with auranofin was studied. Subsequently, the ultrastructural changes induced by treatment with auranofin in promastigotes were studied. Using the obtained results, IC50 of auranofin against amastigotes and promastigotes was calculated as 1.007 and 2.38 μg/ml, respectively. Findings: Showed that auranofin induce apoptosis in L. major. The highest rate of apoptosis (%80.1) occurred at the concentration of 8 μg/ml and also auranofin-induced fragmentation of DNA. Considerable changes occurred in the shape of body and free flagellum of the L. major promastigotes after treatment with auranofin. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that auranofin has a considerable anti-leishmanial activity and additional studies in this field will be based on the results.
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The First Data on the BioEcology of Scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) in Bavi County, Southwestern Iran (2016–2017) p. 25
Hamid Kassiri, Seyyad Ramadan Elhaeizade
Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the scorpion species, abundance, distribution, monthly activity, comparisons between different scorpion collecting methods, and sex ratio in Bavi County, during 2016–2017. Materials and Methods: Collection of scorpions was made during the night examinations using the ultraviolet (UV) light and ordinary flashlight. Meanwhile, during the day, scorpions were gathered through rock rolling and pouring water in-ground holes. Scorpions were hunted using a long forceps and then transferred to the laboratory in separate glass containers containing alcohol 75%. All the specimens were identified based on valid taxonomic keys. Results: A total of nine species in nine genera from three families were identified. Androctunus crassicauda, Hemiscorpius lepturus, and Mesobuthus phillipsii were the most abundant in the investigated areas. The most scorpion activity was recorded in the summer. The most of the specimens were collected through UV light. The sex ratio was 1: 1.2 in favor of females. Conclusion: There are three medically major scorpion species including H. lepturus, A. crassicauda, and M. philipsi in Bavi County. Among them, H. lepturus is the most venomous scorpion in the investigated region. Therefore, inhabitants must be careful of its sting, in particular in children.
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Evaluation effect of chlorhexidine and green tea mouthwash on saliva pH and plaque index p. 30
Mahshad Soltanian, Mehrdad Barekatain, Shirin Zahra Farhad, Mina Etemad
Aims: Applying mouthwash has an important role in reducing caries when compared to other prevention methods. The purpose of this study is to compare saliva pH and plaque index before and after using chlorhexidine mouthwash and a mouthwash with green tea extract. Materials and Methods: Forty dental students were randomly assigned to two groups (chlorhexidine and green tea mouthwash). A week before research getting started and during that, the students were asked to use normal diet and Bass brushing method. Salivary pH and plaque index of the participants were measured before, 1 week, and also 2 weeks after the use of mouth washes. Then, the data were analyzed based on Friedman, Mann–Whitney, and repeated-measures ANOVA tests. Results: The mean pH was significantly different in the three times of 1 week prior, during, and 2 week after the treatment for the green tea group (P = 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the chlorhexidine group (P = 0.211). The mean of new plaque in both chlorhexidine green tea groups was significant (P < 0.001). The mean of plaque formation at <48 h in chlorhexidine and in green tea was both significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The effect of chlorhexidine mouthwash and green tea on salivary pH and plaque index was the same in a week. However, the effect of green tea was more than that of chlorhexidine in a 3-week application.
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Evaluating Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Ergonomic Risk Factors among Office Workers of a Large Public Hospital in Iran p. 35
Elaheh Mianehsaz, Mehrnaz Tabatabaei, Masoud Motalebi Kashani, Hakime Zamani Badi, Habibollah Rahimi
Aims: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries in the musculoskeletal system which is also named as “repetitive stress injury” or “overuse injury”. Inattention to the principles of ergonomics at work is associated with different MSDs. This study evaluated MSDs and their ergonomic risk factors among office workers in a large public hospital in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019. Participants were 111 office workers of Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran. Data were collected using the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire and the Rapid Office Strain Assessment. The SPSS software (v. 20) and the STATA software were used for data analysis, using t-test and linear regression. Results: Most participants were female (55.9%) and had experienced MSDs during the past week (76%). Subject analysis revealed significant differences in vertebral column's MSDs versus limbs and right-sided limbs versus left ones (P < 0.001). The most common MSDs among participants were in the neck (67.6%), lower back (59.5%), and upper back (55%). MSDs among females were significantly more than males (P < 0.05). MSDs in the lower back among overweight and obese participants were significantly more than others (P < 0.05). Respecting the chair-related ergonomic risk factors for MSDs, 24% of participants were at high risk and 75% of them were at moderate risk. Conclusion: Office workers were at moderate risk for MSDs. Providing education about the principles of ergonomics can reduce their MSDs.
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Asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria in patients with type 2 diabetes p. 41
Tauseef Nabi
Aim: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and symptomatic bacteriuria with antibiotic-resistant organisms are common in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim was to study the prevalence, bacterial profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern in ASB and symptomatic bacteriuria and the factors associated with Escherichia coli bacteriuria in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This was an observational case-control study done on 400 asymptomatic type 2 diabetes patients, 200 symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), and 200 nondiabetic controls. Various clinical, biochemical parameters and urine examination and culture were studied. Results: The prevalence of ASB and symptomatic bacteriuria in type 2 diabetes was 17.5% and 69%, respectively, and were significantly higher as compared to controls (10%). E. coli was present in 52.9% of ASB cases of type 2 diabetes and 70% of nondiabetic control ASB. E. coli (55%) was most commonly isolated in symptomatic bacteriuria. Majority of the Gram-negative bacteria isolates in ASB and symptomatic bacteriuria with type 2 diabetes and controls were sensitive to amikacin, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin. E. coli were more resistant to quinolones in ASB and symptomatic bacteriuria than controls. Most of the Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, and amoxiclav. The factors associated with E. coli bacteriuria in type 2 diabetes were female gender, long duration of diabetes, past history of symptomatic UTI, poor glycemic control, and renal function. Conclusions: E. coli remains the most common isolated microorganism in asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria. E. coli were more resistant to quinolones in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Investigation of class 1 integrons and biofilm formation in multi-drug resistance uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection in Shohadaye Qom hospital, Iran p. 47
Ahmad Khorshidi, Nadia Mohammad Zadeh, Azad Khaledi, Gholam Abbas Moosavi, Ali Shakerimoghaddam, Azade Matinpur
Aims: This study aimed to investigate class 1 integrons and biofilm formation in multi-drug resistance (MDR) Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolated from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). Materials and Methods: Three hundred and eighty positive cultures were collected from patients with UTI referred to Shohadaye Qom hospital from 2018 to 2019. Suitable tests were done to diagnose UPEC, and confirmed by usp gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion. Analysis of biofilm production was conducted using microtiter plate assay. Next, the presence of Class 1 integrons and dfr-17 gene was surveyed by PCR. Data analyzed using Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests in SPSS software, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Findings: In total, 166 isolates of UPEC were retrieved. Among them, 120 isolates were MDR. The highest resistance of MDRs was observed against ampicillin. Among MDRs, 71, 18, 15, and 16 isolates were negative, weak, moderate, and strong biofilm producers, respectively. Meanwhile, 47.5% of the isolates were positive for int-1 gene and 25.8% of the isolates were positive for dfr-17-gene cassette. Out of 57 int-1 positive MDRs, 15 isolates (26.3%) showed strong biofilm which indicated a significant correlation (P < 0.001). Furthermore, among 31 MDRs with the positive dfr-17, 8 isolates (25.8%) had strong biofilm which statistically was significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study reported a significant correlation between cassettes genes, Class 1 integrons, and biofilm formation with antibiotic resistance pattern. Hence, continuous screening for antibiotics resistance is vital for infection control and prevention.
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A cross-sectional study on the association between oral health and vitamin D levels in methadone maintenance treatment program of Iranian population p. 53
Amene Taghdisi Kashani, Samane Shamollaghamsari, Amir Hossein Mohammadi, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Amir Ghaderi
Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between oral health and Vitamin D levels in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in addiction treatment centers in Kashan. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 202 patients aged 18–60 years who were referred to methadone maintenance treatment clinics in Kashan. The measurement tool included a demographic information checklist and a modified oral health form of the World Health Organization. 2cc of blood was taken from patients to measure Vitamin D levels. Findings: Out of 181 patients in the study, 73.8% of patients had a methadone dose of <20 cc per day. One hundred twenty-six patients had a history of drug use. In 86.4% of patients, Vitamin D deficiencies were observed. In these patients, moderate gingival problems and moderate-to-severe dental plaque were 60.2% and 71.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the range of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index in these patients was 23.57 ± 7.90. No significant relationship was indicated between DMFT index and Vitamin D level. Conclusions: It is difficult to determine the main causes of oral problems among addicts. Apart from the direct effects of addiction, these patients exhibit a wide range of unhealthy behaviors such as poor oral hygiene, high sugar intake, and poor nutrition. On the other hand, most patients experience reduces in Vitamin D status.
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Effect of iron slag, zeolite, and Piriformospora indica fungus on mazut biodegradation in a heavy metal-polluted soil that was amended with cow manure under canola cultivation p. 58
Amir Hossein Baghaie
Aims: Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the soil is one of the important problems in environmental studies. Thus, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of iron slag, zeolite, and Piriformospora indica fungus on mazut biodegradation in a heavy metal-polluted soil that was amended with cow manure under canola cultivation. Materials and Methods: Treatments included application of zeolite (0% and 2% [W/W]) and iron slag enriched cow manure (0, 15, and 30 t/ha) in a mazut-polluted soil (0%, 4%, and 8% [W/W]) under canola cultivation in the presence of P. indica. After 70 days, plants were harvested and the mazut biodegradation in the soil was measured. In addition, the soil and plant Pb and Cd concentration was measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Findings: Soil application of zeolite (2% [W/W]) in the mazut-polluted soil (4% [W/W]) significantly increased the mazut biodegradation in the soil by 13.1%. In addition, plant inoculation with P. indica significantly increased the mazut biodegradation in the soil and decreased the plant Pb and Cd concentration. Soil application of cow manure at the rate of 15 and 30 t/ha has also increased the mazut biodegradation in the soil by 14.1% and 17.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Using iron slag enriched cow manure and zeolite had additive effects of increasing the mazut biodegradation in the soil and decreasing the soil and plant heavy metal concentration. However, these changes depend on the plant physiology and soil physic-chemical properties that should be considered in different studies.
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Trends in life expectancy and mortality rates in Turkey as Compared to organization for economic co-operation and development countries: An analysis of vital statistics data p. 64
Veli Durmus
Aims: In recent decades, Turkey has seen sustained improvements in life expectancy, although it has remained well below the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average level. The present study aimed to assess trends in life expectancy and mortality rates in the context of changes over a long time period (1997–2016) in Turkey relative to OECD countries. Materials and Methods: Annual demographic and mortality datasets from various official database sources were used. In this descriptive-analytic study, the general stepwise-replacement method was performed to determine the decomposition of changes between two life expectancies of the population between two time points into age-specific contributions. Sex-specific trends in life expectancy since 1997 and age-specific mortality in Turkey with median values for member states were compared. Findings: Female life expectancy in Turkey continued at the lowest level until 2005 and then caught the lower 20% bound in 2015. By contrast, male life expectancy was below this level by 2009. Since 1997, for the first time, infant mortality rates in Turkey have been remarkably low in the comparator group. All age groups contributed to the negative trend in both sexes compared to OECD countries, especially in the 15–64-year group. Conclusions: Compared to OECD countries, Turkey has shown significant improvements in life expectancy since 1997 despite large differences. Particular attention must be paid to understanding why these improvements for both sexes in Turkey have been consistently below the median value of the OECD countries. Health and social policies are needed to curb widening life expectancy inequalities.
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The effectiveness of using lullaby and massage alone and together in assisting kindergarten students to fall asleep p. 70
Ayse Sonay Turkmen, Nejla Canbulat Sahiner, Sevil Inal
Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of using lullaby and massage alone and together in assisting kindergarten students to fall asleep for their noon sleep. Materials and Methods: The research was performed semi-experimentally in cross-sectional between May 9, 2017 and June 6 2017. Thirty children were included. Data were obtained through a question form prepared. The researcher was interviewed four times in total. After the application, the children were evaluated for their transition to sleep, sleep duration, and participation in postsleep activities. Results: When massage was applied, the duration of transition to sleep was shorter when massage and lullaby were used both separately and together, which produced longer sleeping times and higher participation rates in after-sleep activities. Conclusions: Appliying massage to children makes sleeping easier, and massage and lullaby both prolong sleep duration when used alone or in combination and increase participation rates in postsleep activities. Both methods can be used to enhance sleep quality and support participation in activities of kindergarten children.
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