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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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April-June 2021
Volume 8 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 63-126

Online since Tuesday, June 29, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Study of the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relation of parenting styles with social participation of adolescents p. 63
Mohammad Hadi Shahsavari, Zabih Pirani, Davood Taghvaee, Mansour Abdi
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_108_20  
Aim: Social participation is necessary for the development process of adolescents. It is crucial to gain maturity through the social activities. Social activities lead to an individual who knows their abilities and actualizes their talents. This study aims to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relation of parenting styles with the social participation of adolescents. Materials and Methods: The research has been carried out by the correlational method. The statistical population included all high school students of Arak. The sample of the study consisted of 510 students (255 boys and 255 girls) who were selected through the cluster sampling method. The instruments of gathering the data were Bumrind's parenting styles questionnaire, Sherer's general self-efficacy scale, and Branigan's eagerness to participate in social activities. Data analysis was performed using the structural equation method with Smart Partial Least Square software(SmartPLS GmbH, New York, USA). Results: The results showed that the direct effect of the permissive parenting style on social participation and its indirect effect through self-efficacy mediation (P <0.05), the direct effect of authoritarian parenting style on social participation, and its indirect effect through self-efficacy mediation (P <0.05), and finally, the direct effect of the authoritative parenting style on social participation and its indirect effect through self-efficacy mediation on social participation was statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusions: According to the findings, it concluded that self-efficacy plays a significant mediating role in the relationship between parenting styles and the social participation of adolescents. Application and theoretical implications are discussed.
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The relationship between perceived social support and self-care behaviors in patients with ischemic heart disease p. 68
Malihe Abbasi, Khadijeh Yazdi, Ali Kavosi, Hamid Reza Azimi, Zahra Mehrbakhsh
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_133_20  
Aims: Investigators have identified sufficient self-care as an important factor in reducing health-care costs and improving health outcomes in cardiac patients. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and self-care behaviors (SCBs) in patients with ischemic heart disease. Materials and Methods: The present work was a cross-sectional study. Patients with ischemic heart disease were selected using the convenience sampling method. Data gathering tools used in this study were questionnaires of Zimet multidimensional social support and Miller self-care. The data were analyzed in SPSS 18 software using Spearman's correlation and Mann–Whitney tests by significant coefficient <0.05. Results: It was revealed that income, ethnicity, gender, and the type of employment had significant effects on the scores of PSS and SCBs. The mean score of PSS was 44.60 ± 14.30 and that of SCBs for all the patients was calculated at 67.12 ± 17.04. The majority of the patients had a high score of PSS, while, in case of SCBs, the score showed an undesirable condition. The results revealed a direct and significant relationship between PSS and SCBs in patients with ischemic heart disease (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The score of PSS was in a satisfactory range; the unsuitable score of SCBs showed an urgent need of providing education for myocardial ischemia patients to improve the level of their self-care affairs. In addition, the caretakers of the patient should be trained to pay attention to all the important aspects of PSS.
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Investigation of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of nursing, midwifery, and surgical technology students regarding standard precautions and self-protection in the clinical setting p. 74
Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery, Mahdieh Sabery, Zahra Ghadirzade, Fateme Nematian
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_130_20  
Background: Due to the nature of their academic field and clinical training, students of nursing, midwifery, and surgical technology are exposed to the risk of damages due to sharp instruments, blood, and body fluids. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of students of nursing, midwifery, and surgical technology about standard precautions and self-protection in the clinical settings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Nursing and Midwifery School of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, 2018. A total of 300 students were selected through nonprobability quota sampling. A four-part questionnaire was used to collect the data on the students' characteristics, and their knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the special safety percussions. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and SPSS software version 16. Results: No significant connection was found between the students' knowledge, attitudes, and practice and their demographic characteristics. Most students had a moderate level of knowledge about self-protection in the clinical setting. None of the students had good knowledge and compliance with safety principles. A significant correlation was found between knowledge and attitudes (P = 0.01, r = 0.14) and between attitudes and practice (P = 0.00, r = 0.29). No significant correlation was found between the students' knowledge and practice (P = 0.52, r = 0.037). Conclusions: Acquisition of a moderate level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice indicates that the students were familiar with the concepts examined; nonetheless, this level may not suffice for appropriate and safe practice in the clinical setting.
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The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on improving self-concept, depression, and anxiety in obese women p. 79
Elham Keyvani, Mustafa Bolghan-Abadi
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_117_20  
Aims: Obesity can be considered as one of the most complex causes of psychological disorders. Various treatments have been performed to reduce the severity of the disorders in people with obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on improving self-concept, depression, and anxiety in obese women. Materials and Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental (pretest and posttest design with control group). The statistical population of the study included all obese women referred to psychological clinics in Mashhad in 2019. Twenty-four obese women were evaluated. Twelve women in the experimental group received eight sessions of ACT and the other 12 women in the control group (waiting list) did not receive any intervention. The results of Beck's self-concept, depression, and anxiety scales were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Findings: The results of MANCOVA showed that ACT on the level of self-concept and its components (assessment of mental ability, job efficiency, attractiveness, and social skills) as well as reducing the severity of depression and anxiety is effective (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The ACT can be effective as an appropriate intervention to increase the positive assessment of self-concept and reduce the severity of depression and anxiety in obese women. The implications of the study are discussed.
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Predictive factors of home-related injuries among patients admitted to the emergency departments p. 84
Mahdieh Sabery, Mansour Dianati, Hossein Akbari
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_96_20  
Background: Home-related accidents are the main health problem and the second frequent reason of morbidity and mortality after road accidents. This study aimed to determine the status of home injuries and related factors during 2018–2019 in Kashan, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012–2013, in Kashan, convenience sampling method was used and patients referred to the emergency department who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and t-test also for multivariate analysis logistic regression analysis was used. Results: The number 939 questionnaires were completed in total, that 420 were male. There was a statistically significant between age, job, educational level, place of reference, primary cause, mechanism and type of injury, medical diagnosis, and patients' hospitalization. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the effective factors such as the place of referral (Shahid Behest Hospital) (odds ratio [OR] =1.923, P < 0.001), past medical history (OR = 4.280, P = 0.015), cut and sharp instrument (OR = 2.104, P = 0.006), falling (OR = 1.626, P = 0.022), and fracture (OR = 2.781, P < 0.001) have increased the risk of hospitalization. Conclusions: This study provides novel evidence suggesting predictive variables of home accidents are associated with the outcome of hospitalization. Therefore, educational programs and specific interventions should focus on predictive factors to prevent of home accidents.
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Clinical and metabolic reaction to probiotic supplement in children suffering attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment p. 90
Zahra Sepehrmanesh, Ali Shahzeidi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Amir Ghaderi, Afshin Ahmadvand
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_112_20  
Aim: This paper aimed at assessing the influence that probiotic supplement had on mental health and metabolic conditions of children suffering attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and Methods: A number of 34 children with ADHD were selected randomly. Participants were randomly allocated into a group receiving 8 × 109 CFU/g probiotic supplements (n = 17) and a group receiving placebo (n = 17) during an 8-week time period. Clinical symptoms were recorded applying the rating scale of ADHD (ADHD-RS), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) both at onset of the study and after the 8-week interval. Moreover, samples of blood were also taken at the beginning and after the 8-week interval so that the metabolic information could be evaluated. Results: The probiotic supplementation could bring about a considerable decrease in total ADHD-RS (β −3.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −5.60, −1.02; P = 0.006) and HAM-A (β −1.91 [0.18]; 95% CI, −3.41, −0.41; P = 0.01) than that of the placebo. In addition, probiotic supplementation brought about a considerable decrease in high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) of serum (β −2.05 mg/L; 95% CI, −3.57, −0.52; P = 0.01) as well as a substantial rise in plasma overall antioxidant volume (TAC) (β 66.26 mmol/L; 95% CI, 36.83, 95.68; P < 0.001) than that of the placebo. No meaningful effects were observed on CDI and other metabolic features after the intake of probiotic supplements. Conclusions: Taking probiotic by children suffering ADHD could affect ADHD-RS, HAM-A, hs-CRP of serum, and TAC levels in plasma, while it did not show any effects on CDI and other metabolic profiles.
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Environmental factors: Possible reasons for higher incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in high-income countries p. 97
Ali Tamaddon, Mohsen Ramezani Nezhad, Malihe Abbasi, Seyedeh Nahid Seyedhasani, Mohammad Sarmadi, Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_142_20  
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has had a remarkable increase in prevalence during recent years. This study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between prevalence and incidence of MS with the income level and lifestyle condition of countries with considering the effect of latitude. Subjects and Methods: This is an ecological study with secondary data obtained from several sources such as MS International Federation for MS variables data, and World Bank is a reliable source for economic variables. The latitude is also added in all models as an important effective factor. The bivariate correlation and linear regression were used to analyze of data. Results: The prevalence of MS in 2013 (54.06/100,000) increased by 9% in comparison to that in 2008 (49.96/100,000). According to fully adjusted analysis, there were significant positive correlations between income level with the incidence and prevalence of MS in reported 2008 and 2013 (P < 0.05) throughout the world. Our results revealed that the mean MS prevalence estimates in northern hemisphere, especially in North of America and Europe were different with those in the southern hemisphere. Conclusion: MS is more prevalent in high-income countries and the prevalence in developing countries is increasing by economically growth. It seems that environmental factors related to economic determinants are associated with increased incidence and prevalence of MS, further, geographic location continues to influence risk for MS, but these associations require more studies.
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Genotypes Identification of echinococcus granulosus isolated from iranian dogs and camels using three polymerase Chain reaction-based methods of cox1 gene p. 104
Mohsen Arbabi, Hossein Hooshyar, Mahdi Delavari, Nader Pestechian
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_91_20  
Aims: Hydatidosis is an important zoonotic disease that is caused by a tiny tapeworm, namely Echinococcus granulosus. In this study, three polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, including, high resolution melting (HRM) analysis, DNA sequencing, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) have been used for genotype the identification of E. granulosus isolates from dogs and camels in Zarinshahr and Najafabad, Isfahan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 adult worms of 40 dogs and 51 samples of camel hydatid cysts were examined. Molecular characterization of isolates was performed using HRM assay, sequencing of DNA, and digestion Rsa1 pattern coding for the mitochondrial cox1 gene. For analysis of the HRM melting curve, we used the Tm within the range of 77.50°C–79.23°C. Results: HRM analysis revealed that 72.5%, 15%, and 12.5% dog's genotypes and 41.17%, 21.56%, and 35.29% camel genotypes were G1, G3, and G6, respectively. PCR-RFLP analysis, spare parts 310 bp and 138 bp of cox1 that shows the G1 genotype in all of the isolates. Sequence analysis as well as HRM assay was confirmed genotypes of G1, G3, and G6 in camels and dogs. Based on three methods of the cox1 gene the dominant genotype was G1. Conclusion: The PCR-RFLP only identified the G1 genotype, whereas the HRM analysis, as well as DNA sequencing, were detected three genotypes G1, G3, G6, therefore, these two methods have enough accuracy for the determination of genotypes of E. granulosus. This information leads to a better understanding of the biological characteristics of E. granulosus genotypes in Iran and shows the camel as a source of human hydatidosis.
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The effect of cognitive behavioral therapy based on health psychology on perfectionism and quality of life p. 111
Mohammad Goudarzi, Abdolhassan Farhangi, Taher Tizdast, Nasir Javidi
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_134_20  
Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy based on health psychology on perfectionism and the quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods: The plan of research is an experimental design by pretest–posttest and control group. The statistical population consists of all clients referring to Talie Counseling and Psychological Services Center located at region 4 of Tehran, of which 30 individuals who had higher perfectionism tendency based on the structured interview were selected as research sample and placed randomly in two: the two-test group and the control group. The test group went under group cognitive behavioral treatment for 2 months (8 sessions, 90 min/session). To evaluate perfectionism, the rate of them was applied and life quality was evaluated through a short form of life quality questionnaire of WH. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and covariance analysis (MANCOVA). Results: It was found that cognitive behavioral therapy reduced perfectionism and increased the QOL in the experimental group compared to that of the control group. In fact, perfectionism is rooted in dysfunctional thoughts, negative beliefs, and cognitive distortions that are reduced by cognitive behavioral therapy. When a person's perfectionism decreases, the QOL also improves due to the reduction of anxiety. Conclusion: The present study is one of the main applications of health psychology. Cognitive behavioral interventions have an appropriate effect on perfectionism and solving their related problems. It seems that perfectionism is reduced using cognitive behavioral techniques and practices, and finally, the QOL can improve.
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Epidemiology and risk factors of nosocomial infection among trauma patients hospitalized in Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital p. 117
Hasan Afzali, Mansooreh Momen-Heravi, Alireza Moravveji, Roya Taghvaee
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_67_19  
Aim: Nosocomial infection is one the most important health problem in the world. In trauma patients, nosocomial infection is one the most important factor of morbidity and mortality, increased hospitalization days, economic costs, and patient dissatisfaction. This study aimed at assessing the frequency of nosocomial infection and its related factors in hospitalized trauma patients in Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 338 trauma patients who had been admitted to Kashan Beheshti Hospital during 2015. Data were collected using the questionnaire containing demographic and paraclinical results in trauma patients. The patients were examined for fever and nosocomial infection daily. The data were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square by the SPSS software version 16. Results: Twenty-one (6.2%) out of 338 trauma patients had nosocomial infection. There were 7 (33.3%) surgical site infections, 5 (23.8%) pneumonia, 5 (23.8%) soft-tissue infection, and 3 (14.2%) urinary tract infection and 4 (19.04%) fever with of unknown origin. There was a significant statistical association between underlying disease, duration of hospitalization, multiple trauma, surgical intervention, using the device, and history of admission to ICU with the rate of the infections. However, there was no significant association between sex, age, body mass index, and smoking with the rate of the infection. Conclusions: The rate of nosocomial infection was 6.2% and it was lower than other studies. The nosocomial infection is more frequent in patients with underlying diseases, with surgical intervention, admission in ICU, using device, multiple trauma, and more duration of hospitalization.
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Investigating and prioritizing of the barriers of performing periodic occupational examinations in industries of Kashan city in 2019 p. 122
Marzieh Sadaf, Masoud Motalebi Kashani, Hamid Reza Saberi, Hossein Akbari, Sedighe Dehghani Bidgoli, Mitra Hannani
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_85_20  
Aim and Scope: Health monitoring is important component of the employee health maintenance program, which is performed by periodic examinations in accordance with Article 92 of the Labor Law. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the barriers of performing periodic examinations in the industries of Kashan in 2019. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 200 people (employer, health inspector, and medicine physician and industry health experts). A researcher-made questionnaire used to collect the data. Barriers were prioritized based on the scores of each group. Then, a weighting technique was used to accumulate the opinions and final prioritization. To analyze the data, SPSS 16 software was used. Results: Out of 200 subjects the number (percentage) of employers, inspectors, occupational medicine physicians and industry experts were 103 (51.5%), 31 (15.5%), 5 (2.5%) and 61 (31.5%) respectively. Using AHP (hierarchical analysis) and Expert Choice software. Final weight for the perspective of occupational health inspectors, employer, occupational medicine physician, and industry expert was obtained at 0.38, 0.257, 0.195, and 0.168, respectively. After applying the weight from the perspective of the four groups, the final priorities were obtained as the high cost of examinations, lack of awareness of workers about the importance of examinations, and lack of a comprehensive plan to reduce occupational diseases in industry, respectively. Conclusion: It is recommended that examinations be performed in clinics covered by the University of Medical Sciences at a lower cost. And train employers about the benefits and importance of occupational examinations.
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