• Users Online: 139
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 
Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 159-164

The correlation of character traits with job burnout among Beheshti Hospital nurses in Kashan during 2015


1 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iarn
2 Department of Occupational Health, Faculty of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
3 Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission08-Dec-2020
Date of Decision11-May-2021
Date of Acceptance19-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication25-Sep-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Hossein Akbari
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan
Iarn
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/iahs.iahs_155_20

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Introduction: Occupational burnout is one of the complications of work and a psychological syndrome including emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and feeling of inadequacy. Furthermore, personality traits such as openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism can affect the degree of occupational burnout. This study is to investigate the relationship between these two factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 87 nurses from Kashan Beheshti Hospital. We used Neo and Maslach questionnaires to investigate the personality traits and occupational burnout. Sampling was performed by a simple random sampling method, and the data were collected by Neo and Maslach questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square, Fisher exact test, independent t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: In general, there is a significant relationship between different aspects of occupational burnout with personality traits. There was no significant relationship between occupational burnout and age (P < 0.262), while there was a relationship between occupational desirability and age. There was no significant relationship between the frequency and severity of occupational burnout in the various aspects of age, sex, and marital status of nurses. There is also no relationship between personality traits and these three factors. Conclusion: The study showed that the personality traits of nurses are effective in their occupational burnout. Furthermore, compare to depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and feeling of inadequacy in nurses is more related to personality traits and the modification of work environment and reduction of work stress are recommended for these employees.

Keywords: Burnout, nurses, personality trait


How to cite this article:
Kashani MM, Alam M, Kaveh M, Hannani M, Akbari H. The correlation of character traits with job burnout among Beheshti Hospital nurses in Kashan during 2015. Int Arch Health Sci 2021;8:159-64

How to cite this URL:
Kashani MM, Alam M, Kaveh M, Hannani M, Akbari H. The correlation of character traits with job burnout among Beheshti Hospital nurses in Kashan during 2015. Int Arch Health Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Nov 28];8:159-64. Available from: http://www.iahs.kaums.ac.ir/text.asp?2021/8/3/159/326694




  Introduction Top


In the process of adaptation to his social environment, the modern man inevitably suffers constraints and pressures. Therefore, the occupation may cause dissatisfaction and inadaptability and as a result, keep the individual out of his natural and normal form and makes him exhausted.[1] Occupational burnout is one of the work-related problems that have been considered in recent years.[2] It is a psychological syndrome that includes emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and feeling of inadequacy.[3],[4]

Emotional exhaustion is affected by psychological stress, emotional stress, and loss of emotional resources in an individual. Depersonalization is a negative and wild response to people who are usually service recipients of the same person and also includes feeling of inadequacy, lower feeling of competence in performing tasks, and negative self-assessment in work.[5] According to studies conducted by the US Department of Intelligence, according to studies conducted by the US Department of Intelligence, among the existing workforce, the highest rate of occupational injuries, including occupational burnout, is related to the health-care services.[6] This syndrome is also associated with physical symptoms such as fatigue, anorexia, headache, and disordered sleep pattern. In addition, nonspecific pain, decreased attention, senselessness, and lack of emotion and attachment to work have been reported.[7] Furthermore, the individual feels unable to do his tasks, low sense of competence, low interest, reluctance to start work, and inability to keep balanced, to the extent that symptoms of depression, mood disturbances, and insomnia can be created in him.[8] Studies show that nurses are more likely to be exposed to occupational burnout than other occupations.[9] In the hospitals affiliated with Babol University of Medical Sciences, occupational burnout was reported in 68.8% of nurses.[10] In a study conducted in private hospitals in Tehran, about 87% of nurses reported moderate to high levels of emotional exhaustion.[11] Contrary to the studies that report factors such as economic ones and occupational support in the occurrence of occupational burnout, other studies also consider individual factors such as the personality of employees as an effective phenomenon.[12],[13],[14] In the last two decades, various studies have shown that personality has played an important role in the development of occupational burnout.[15] Personality is a collection of psychological traits and relatively stable internal organizational mechanisms that influence the interactions of the individual and his adaptation to the social, physical, and psychological environment.[16] The five factors of personality traits include openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.[17] In a meta-analysis, Ahola et al. examined the relationship between personality traits and occupational burnout. The results showed that conscientiousness, desirability, positive mood, negative mood, optimism, and hardiness have a negative relationship with the occupational burnout and the type A positively is positively related to the occupational burnout.[18] The results of the studies of Abdi Masouleh et al., who aimed at investigating the relationship between occupational burnout and mental health in 200 nurses, indicated that the majority of research units had a low level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and a high level of the reduction of individual success.[19] At present, one of the common methods for measuring the dimensions of occupational burnout is Maslach questionnaire. According to the studies, this questionnaire has been introduced as a reliable tool for measurement of the dimensions of occupational burnout.[20],[21] Since the human being is the basic unit of the work of nurses, especially human being with physical and mental sufferings who needs sympathetic care, the physical-mental health of nurses is very important, and so far, no research has been performed in this regard. This research investigates the possible relationship between personality traits and occupational burnout among nurses in Kashan Beheshti Hospital.


  Materials and Methods Top


This is a descriptive, correlation study. The sample size was determined by referring to each ward of hospitals and obtaining the list of nurses by using the random numbers table. Thereafter, a brief explanation was given to the nurses about the design and objectives of the study. If they agreed to participate in the study, the NEO and Maslach questionnaire was provided for them to be completed. After completion, the questionnaire was reviewed by the researchers. If the answers were incomplete, they were asked to complete them.

NEO questionnaire

NEO questionnaire is one of the most recent questionnaires on the assessment of personality based on factor analysis approach. The questionnaire also has a shortened form called NEO-FFI, which is a 60-item questionnaire and is used to assess the five main factors in the personality.[22] The five factors of personality traits include openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.[17] Neuroticism refers to the tendency of the individual to experience anxiety, tension, seeking sympathy, hostility, impulsivity, depression, and low self-esteem. While extroversion indicates the individual's desire for being positive, daring, energetic and intimate, openness reflects the individual's desire for curiosity, love for the art, flexibility, and reasoning, and it refers to the tendency of the individual for generosity, kindness, empathy, altruism, and trust. Ultimately, conscientiousness refers to the individual's desire for being disciplined, efficiency, reliability, self-discipline, promotion seeking, rationality, and being calm.[23] If the time of the test is short and the general information is sufficient, the shortened form of the questionnaire will be used. On the other hand, the implementation of this test is cost effective and time saving, its choices are highly reliably and have a high correlation. The most important point is that this test has received the lowest criticism compared to other tests. The response sheet to this questionnaire is based on the Likert scale (totally disagree, disagree, indifferent, agree, and totally agree). Scoring of the shortened form of this questionnaire, NEO-FFI, is not the same for all cases; that is, in some cases of scoring in the shortened form of questionnaire, totally disagree obtains a score of 5, disagree a score of 4, indifferent 3, agree 2, and totally agree 1. Meanwhile, in some other cases, the reverse scoring approach is used for this shortened form. The validity and reliability of the Persian version of this questionnaire have been shown in previous studies [Table 1].[22]
Table 1: Scoring and interpretation of NEO test results

Click here to view


Maslach questionnaire

Maslach questionnaire is the most common tool for measuring occupational burnout. This questionnaire is a golden standard for measuring occupational burnout and consists of three independent measuring scales created by 22 separate items on feelings and attitudes which measure various aspects of the occupational burnout syndrome. Nine items are related to the emotional exhaustion, 5 to depersonalization, and 8 to personal accomplishment. The frequency of these emotions is measured by scores from zero (never) to six (every day). To score this questionnaire, the total scores related to the statements of each aspect of the occupational burnout are calculated separately. In terms of emotional exhaustion, scores of 27 or higher indicate a higher level, in terms of depersonalization, scores of 13 or higher indicate a higher level, and in terms of personal accomplishment, scores of 31 or lower indicate a lower level. If the level of emotional exhaustion of a depersonalization is high, or the level of personal accomplishment is low, the concept of occupational burnout applies to the individual. The validity and reliability of the Persian version of this questionnaire have been shown in previous studies [Table 2].[20],[24]
Table 2: Classification of Maslach Burnout test scores

Click here to view



  Results Top


This study was performed on 87 nurses, two-third (82.8%) of whom were women and a third (17.2%) were men, with the mean of 28.72 and a standard deviation of 5.9 years of age. In terms of working shifts, 89.7% had revolving shifts and 10.3% had a fixed morning shifts. Results from this study are shown in [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6].
Table 3: Linear correlation coefficient between burnout with personality traits

Click here to view
Table 4: Distribution of intensity of burnout in different dimensions based on age of nurses

Click here to view
Table 5: Distribution of personality traits by gender

Click here to view
Table 6: Distribution of personality traits by age

Click here to view


In general, there was a significant relationship between different aspects of occupational burnout with personality traits. There was no significant relationship between the frequency and severity of occupational burnout in different aspects of age, sex, and marital status of nurses. There is also no correlation between personality traits and these three factors.

[Table 3] shows that the highest linear correlation is between emotional exhaustion (P < 0.001, R = 0.422) and depersonalization (P < 0.004 R = 0.303) with the personality traits related to neuroticism. There is also high correlation between feeling of inadequacy with flexibility and accountability. Other correlations are also specified in [Table 3].

In general, there was no significant relationship between different aspects of occupational burnout with age in nurses (P < 0.262) [Table 4].

There was no significant relationship between the different aspects of personality traits with the gender of nurses (P < 0.463) [Table 5].

In terms of job desirability, 13.7% of under 30-year-old nurses thought that they had a desirable job, while the number is 0% for above 30-year-old ones. Hence, there is a significant correlation between age and job desirability (P < 0.02). There was no statistically significant relationship between other aspects of personality traits and the age of nurses [Table 6].


  Discussion Top


The findings of this study showed that there is a significant relationship between personality factors and occupational burnout. The results indicate that there is a significant and direct correlation between neuroticism and occupational burnout, i.e. nurses who have a high score in neuroticism have also a high in occupational burnout. The highest linear correlation was found between emotional exhaustion (R = 0.422 P < 0.001) and personality trait (R = 0.303 P < 0.004) with the neuroticism-related personality traits. Other researchers also believe that neuroticism is far more related to occupational burnout than other personality traits. Anxiety, fear, petulance, worry, jealousy, disappointment, hot-bloodedness, and loneliness are attributed to neuroticism.[25] The classified traits of neuroticism are fear, irritability, low self-esteem, social anxiety, weakness in controlling impulses, and a greater sense of helplessness. In general, individuals who set very high goals and tend to underestimate their performance would obtain high scores in neuroticism.[26] These findings are consistent with the results of previous studies.[27],[28] In the results of Goddard et al. on the aspects of the 5-factor model of personality, it is only neuroticism that significantly predicts emotional exhaustion. In this longitudinal study on nurses at the intensive care unit of the hospital, the results showed that individuals with high scores of neuroticism experience high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.[29] Furthermore, the study by Celik and Oral showed a significant relationship between the neurotic personality and burnout, which is consistent with our study.[30] There is also a negative and significant relationship between the neurotic personality and the level of personal accomplishment, such that the higher the neuroticism in nurses, the lower their neuroticism, which is in line with similar studies in this area.[31],[32],[33],[34] The results show that there is a significant negative correlation between the personality trait of extroversion and emotional exhaustion, and a significant positive correlation with the personal accomplishment, i.e. the higher the level of extroversion in nurses, the lower the level of emotional exhaustion and the higher the level of personal accomplishment, which is in line with the results of other studies.[35],[36],[37],[38],[39] Since the positive emotions are the core of the personality of the extroverts, this trait provides them with a more favorable working and social environment, and subsequently, individuals who think positively concerning the workplace and in the future of their jobs have more opportunities and advantages than others. Therefore, it can be concluded that nurses with higher extraversion traits have less emotional exhaustion due to appropriate responses to and adaptation with stressful situations, which can provide them with a higher job satisfaction. The research carried out in this area is in line with the above results. Cano-Garsia et al. showed that high scores in occupational burnout are accompanied with high scores of introversion.[40] Francis et al. found that extroversion has a negative relationship with emotional exhaustion and there is a significant relationship between extroversion and the aspects of occupational burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization).[41] The findings of this study are not consistent with the results of some studies,[42],[43],[44] which can be due to different statistical populations, number of samples, traits of samples such as type of job, different tools of evaluation, and other factors involved in the study. Swider and Zimmerman also state that those with low scores of extraversion, desirability, and flexibility are more prone to occupational burnout.[28] There is also such a finding in the previous research that describes the personality traits of occupational burnout.[27],[45],[46],[47],[48],[49],[50] Desirability affects the nature of interpersonal relationships. A desirable individual is essentially altruistic, sympathetic toward and is willing to help others and believes that others are mutually helpful. Individuals with this personality trait are expected to be more socially desirable and more psychologically sound. Individuals with this trait are more likely to have a positive outlook on their future career and personal accomplishment. This knowledge and positive view prevent the creation of negative psychological conditions such as failure and emotional exhaustion. They also experience successful interpersonal relationships because they are intimate with others. Success in interpersonal relationships, coupled with a sense of sympathy and concern over others, leads to less depersonalization, which is consistent with the results of Alterman et al.[51] In this study, there was a significant positive correlation between personality traits of accountability and personal accomplishment, i.e. the higher the level of accountability, the higher the level of personal accomplishment. According to the study by Costa and McCrae, individuals with accountability act in responsible ways and exercise self-control over their behavior.[52] To explain these results, it can be said that nurses with a personality trait of responsibility will have a higher level of personal accomplishment due to their higher commitment to behave responsibly in their duties, and this forces the person to act more carefully in his duties, and this higher pressure will lead to a sense of occupational burnout. As other researchers found in their research, the high pressure and sense of responsibility lead to emotional exhaustion in nurses.[53],[54] The findings of this study showed that there is no relationship between the aspects of occupational burnout and age among nurses. In the study of Esfandiari, aspects of occupational burnout were higher in the lower age group than the age group.[55] In the study of Payami on nurses, there was no significant relationship between the occupational burnout and age.[56] According to the study by Spooner Lane, there was a negative correlation with emotional exhaustion and personality traits, and younger nurses reported higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization,[57] which is consistent with our study. Findings of Maslach and Jackson also showed that older nurses had lower levels of occupational burnout in terms of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of job satisfaction,[58] which is consistent with our findings. According to some other studies, age of nurses did not have a significant relationship with occupational burnout.[58],[59],[60],[61],[62],[63],[64],[65],[66],[67]

There is a significant statistical relationship between desirability and age (P < 0.02). This correlation suggests that as the age increases, the desire of the individual for curiosity, love for art, flexibility, and wisdom decreases.

In general, the results of this and other studies on occupational burnout show that the more positive personality traits, i.e. flexibility and desirability, and the more the individual can adapt to the working environment and to help others, he/she will become exhausted later, but the negative traits (neuroticism) will make the individual exhausted sooner.


  Conclusion Top


The study showed that the personality traits of nurses are effective in their occupational burnout. Furthermore, compare to depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and feeling of inadequacy in nurses is more related to personality traits and the modification of work environment and reduction of work stress are recommended for these employees.

Acknowledgment

The authors respectfully wish to express their gratitude to the research deputy of the university and all nurses helped us to conduct this study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Maslach C, Jakson S. The measurement of experienced burnout. J Occup Behav 1981;2:99-113.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Bahri N, Attar bashi M, Gharache M. The survey of relationship between job burnout and health status of midwives and nurses. Ofogh E Danesh J Gonabad Univ Med Sci Health Serv 2003;9:99-104.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Maslach C, Jackson S. Burnout in Health Professions: Social Psychology of Health and Illness. NJ: Hillsdale; 1982; 227-51.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Maslach C, Goldberg J. Prevention of burnout: New perspectives. Appl Prev Psychol 1998;7:63-74.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Maslach C, Jackson SE, Leiter MP. Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual. 3rd ed. California: Consulting Psychologist Press Inc.,; 1996.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Amlashi S. Accessing strain factors among the pregnant women practitioner In: The Internal and Surgery Section of Tehran Univresity of Medical Sceinses. Tehran: Tehran Univresity of Medical Sceinses; 1380.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Pruessner JC, Hammer DH, Cleman KB. Percieved stress and cortisol responses to a working psychosomatic. J Med 1999;61:197-204.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Levy BS, Wegman DH. Occupational Health, Recognizing and Preventing Work-Related Disease. Boston: Litte Brown and Company; 1983.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Payami M. Relationship between burnout and social support in critical care nurses. J Zanjan Univ Med Sci Health Serv 2001;8:57-52.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Aziznejad P, Hosseini S. Burnout and the influential factors on it in medical educational hospital nurses in babol. J Babol Med Univ 2006;863-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Masoudi R, Etemadifar SH, Afzali SM, Kheiri F, Dehkordi H. The influential factors on burnout among urses working in private hospitals in Tehran. Nurs Res 2008;3:47-58.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Zarei H. Management of Advanced Organizational Behaviour. Tehran: Agah; 2009. p. 126-88.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Swider BW, Zimmerman RD. Born to burnout: A meta-nalytic path model of personality, job burnout, and work outcomes. J Vocat Behav 2010;10:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Garrosa E, Moreno-Jiménez B, Liang Y, González JL. The relationship between socio-demographic variables, job stressors, burnout, and hardy personality in nurses: An exploratory study. Int J Nurs Stud 2008;45:408-42.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Goldberg LR. The structure of phenotypic personality trits. Am Psychol 1993;48:26-34.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Larsen RJ, Buss DM. Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature. 3th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill International Publishing Inc; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Costa PT, McCrae RR. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1992.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Ahola K, Kivimäki M, Honkonen T, Virtanen M, Koskinen S, Vahtera J, et al. Occupational burnout and medically certified sickness absence: A population-based study of Finnish employees. J Psychosom Res 2008;64:185-93.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Abdi Masooleh F, Kaviani H, Khaghani zadeh M, Momeni Araghi A. The relationship between burnout and mental health among nurses. Tehran Univ Med J 2007;65:65-75.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Momeni KH. Survey of Job Burnout in Staffs of Isfahan Dr. Shariaty Hospital Regarding Personality Traits. Najaf Abad: Azad University of Najaf Abad; 1998.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Hannani M, Motalebi Kashani M, Gilasi HR. Evaluating the correlation between burnout syndrome dimensions and demographic characteristics of cashiers in state banks of Kashan. Feyz, Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences 2011;15:69-76.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Grusi MT. The Application of Factor Analysis in the Study of Personality. 1st ed. Tabriz: Danial Publication; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Haren EG, Mitchell CW. Relationships between the five factor personality model and coping styles. Psychol Educ 2003;40:38-49.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Maslach C, Jackson SE, Leiter MP. Manual of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 3rd ed. California: Consulting Psychologist Press Inc; 1996.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Sáez-Francàs N, Valero S, Calvo N, Gomà-I-Freixanet M, Alegre J, de Sevilla TF, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome and personality: A case-control study using the Alternative Five Factor Model. Psychiatry Res 2014;216:373-8.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Garosei Farshi M. The New Perspective in Assessment of Personality. Tabriz: Danial and Jamea Pajoh; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Cano-Garcia FJ, Padilla-Munoz EM, Carrasco-Ortiz MA. Personality and contextual variables in teacher burnout. Pers Individ Dif 2005;38:929-40.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Swider BW, Zimmerman RD. Born to burnout: A meta–analytic path model of personality, job burnout, and work outcomes. J Vocat Behav 2010;5:1-20.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Goddard R, Patton W, Creed P. The importance and place of neuroticism in predicting burnout in employment service case managers. J Appl Soc Psychol 2004;34:282-96.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Celik GT, Oral EL. Burnout levels and personality traits-the case of Turkish architectural students. Creat Educ 2013;4:124-31.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Shimizutani M, Odagiri Y, Ohya Y, Shimomitsu T, Kristensen TS, Maruta T, et al. Relationship of nurse burnout with personality characteristics and coping behaviors. Ind Health 2008;46:326-35.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Ghorpade J, Lackritz J, Singh G. Burnout and personality: Evidence from academia. J Career Assess 2007;15:240-56.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Wang J, Patten SB. The moderating effects of coping strategies on major depression in the general population. Can J Psychiatry 2002;47:167-73.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Kim HJ, Shin KH, Swanger N. Burnout and engagement: A comparative analysis using the Big Five personality dimensions. Int J Hosp Manage 2009;28:96-104.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Sadooghi Z, Aguilar-Vafaie ME, Rasoulzadeh Tabatabaie K, Esfehanian N. Factor analysis of the young schema questionnaire-short form in a nonclinical Iranian sample. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol 2008;14:214-9.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Babaeiamiri N, Haghighat S, Ashoori J. The relationship of job burnout, perceived social support and psychological hardiness with mental health among nurses. Sci J Hamadan Nurs Midwifery Facult 2016;24:120-8.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Ben-Zur H, Zeidner M. Threat to life and risk-taking behaviors: A review of empirical findings and explanatory models. Pers Soc Psychol Rev 2009;13:109-28.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Sarrni D. All Emotional Intelligence in the Prediction of Plocement Success in the Company Business in Centives. Toront, Canada: Multi-Health Systems; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Carson KD, Carson PP, Birkenmeier BJ. Measuring emotional intelligence: Development and validation of an instrument. J Behav Appl Manage 2016;2:810.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Cano-Garsia FJ, Padilla-Munoz EM, Garrasco-Ortiz MA. Personality and contextual variables in teacher burnout. Pers Individ Dif 2005;38:929-40.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Francis LG, Louden SH, Rutledge CJ. Burnout among Roman catholic parochial clergy in England and wales: Myth or reality? Rev Relig Res 2004;46:5-19.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Soleimani K, Sharifi V, Tehrani DM. Occupational burnout in psychiatric staff at Roozbeh Hospital. Advances in Cognitive Science 2006;7:36-42.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Schutte NS, Malouff JM, Thorsteinsson EB, Bhullar N, Rooke SE. A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health. Pers Individ Dif 2007;42:921-33.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Kilfedder CJ, Power KG, Wells TJ. Burnout in psychiatric nursing. J Adv Nurs 2001;34:383-96.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Bakker AB, Van dear zee KI, Lewig KA, Dollard MF. The relationship between the big five personality factors and burnout: A study among volunteer counselor. J Soc Psychol 2010;1:31-50.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Ebstrup JF, Eplov LF, Pisinger C, Jørgensen T. Association between the five factor personality traits and perceived stress: Is the effect mediated by general self-efficacy? Anxiety Stress Coping 2011;24:407-19.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Bakker AB, Schaufeli WB. Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. J Organ Behav 2008;29:147-54.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Lee SJ, Choi YJ, Chae H. The effects of personality traits on academic burnout in Korean medical students. Integr Med Res 2017;6:207-13.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Coffey M, Coleman M. The relationship between support and stress in forensic community mental health nursing. J Adv Nurs 2001;34:397-407.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Zellars KL, Perrewe PL, Hochwarter WA. Burnout in health care: The role of the five factors of personality. J Appl Soc Psychol 2009;30:1570-98.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Alterman T, Grosch J, Chen X, Chrislip D, Petersen M, Krieg E Jr., et al. Examining associations between job characteristics and health: Llinking data from the occupational information network (O* NET) to two US national health surveys. J Occup Environ Med 2008;50:1401-13.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Costa PT, McCrae RR. Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO personality inventory. Psychol Assess 1992;4:5.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Wu S, Zhu W, Wang Z, Wang M, Lan Y. Relationship between burnout and occupational stress among nurses in China. J Adv Nurs 2007;59:233-9.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Lotfiniya H, Mohsenynia H. Investigating the Relationship between personality characteristics and burnout among primary teachers of Tabriz. Teach Sci 2008;11:93-106.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Esfandiari GH. Survey of the rate of occupational burnout between nursing staff of Sanandaj hospitals affiliated to Kurdistan university of medical sciences in 2001. Sci J Kurdistan Univ Med Sci 2001;6:31-5.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Payami M. occupational burnout and some related factors in female nurses working at Zanjan educational hospitals in 2001. J Zanjan Univ Med Sci Health Serv 2002;10:47-51.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Spooner Lane R. The Influence of work stress and work support on burnout in public hospital nurses. In: Thesis Submitted in Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Queensland: Queensland University of Technology; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Sahebalzamani M, Safavi M, Farahani H. Determination of the amount burnout and correlation between burnout and social support among psycolological hospitals in Tehran. J Islamic Free Univ 2009;19:206-11.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Payami Busari M. Determination of the amount burnout and correlation between burnout and social support among intensive care unit. J Zanjan Med Univ 2000;33:52-7.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Dilorio B, Cillo N, Cucciniello E, Bellizzi V. Burn-Out in the dialysis unit. J Nephrol 2008;21:158-62.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Arikan F, Koksal CD, Gokçe C. Work-related stress, Burnout, and job satisfaction of dialysis nurses in association with perceived relations with professional contacts. Dial Transplant 2007;36:182-91.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Flynn L, Thomas-Hawkins C, Clarke SP. Organizational traits, care processes, and burnout among chronic hemodialysis nurses. West J Nurs Res 2009;31:569-82.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
O'Brien JL. Relationships among structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and burnout in registered staff nurses working in outpatient dialysis centers. Nephrol Nurs J 2011;38:475-81.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Klersy C, Callegari A, Martinelli V, Vizzardi V, Navino C, Malberti F, et al. Burnout in health care providers of dialysis service in Northern Italy – A multicentre study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007;22:2283-90.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Soleimani K, Sharifi V, Tehranidust M. Burnout among Ruzbeh medical psycological hospial staff. J N Cogn Sci 2005;7:36-42.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Lang GM, Pfister EA, Siemens MJ. Nursing burnout: Cross-sectional study at a large Army hospital. Mil Med 2010;175:435-41.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Safari SH. Relationship between ersonality traits and burnout among faculty members and free staff azad university city. J Educ Leadersh Manage Islamic Azad Univ Vahdgrmsar 2009;3:101-85.  Back to cited text no. 67
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed268    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded31    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal