|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 63-67
Study of the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relation of parenting styles with social participation of adolescents
Mohammad Hadi Shahsavari1, Zabih Pirani2, Davood Taghvaee3, Mansour Abdi4
1 PhD Student in Educational Psychology, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Arak University, Arak, Iran
|Date of Submission||13-Oct-2020|
|Date of Decision||28-Nov-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||02-Dec-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||29-Jun-2021|
Dr. Zabih Pirani
Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: Social participation is necessary for the development process of adolescents. It is crucial to gain maturity through the social activities. Social activities lead to an individual who knows their abilities and actualizes their talents. This study aims to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relation of parenting styles with the social participation of adolescents. Materials and Methods: The research has been carried out by the correlational method. The statistical population included all high school students of Arak. The sample of the study consisted of 510 students (255 boys and 255 girls) who were selected through the cluster sampling method. The instruments of gathering the data were Bumrind's parenting styles questionnaire, Sherer's general self-efficacy scale, and Branigan's eagerness to participate in social activities. Data analysis was performed using the structural equation method with Smart Partial Least Square software(SmartPLS GmbH, New York, USA). Results: The results showed that the direct effect of the permissive parenting style on social participation and its indirect effect through self-efficacy mediation (P <0.05), the direct effect of authoritarian parenting style on social participation, and its indirect effect through self-efficacy mediation (P <0.05), and finally, the direct effect of the authoritative parenting style on social participation and its indirect effect through self-efficacy mediation on social participation was statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusions: According to the findings, it concluded that self-efficacy plays a significant mediating role in the relationship between parenting styles and the social participation of adolescents. Application and theoretical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Adolescents, parenting styles, self-efficacy, social participation
|How to cite this article:|
Shahsavari MH, Pirani Z, Taghvaee D, Abdi M. Study of the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relation of parenting styles with social participation of adolescents. Int Arch Health Sci 2021;8:63-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Shahsavari MH, Pirani Z, Taghvaee D, Abdi M. Study of the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relation of parenting styles with social participation of adolescents. Int Arch Health Sci [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Oct 7];8:63-7. Available from: http://www.iahs.kaums.ac.ir/text.asp?2021/8/2/63/319807
| Introduction|| |
Social participation and factors affecting it have received considerable attention from researchers. In this case, various approaches have been selected to examine the determinants of social participation and development. The first approach addresses the effect of familial environment processes on social participation and the second one focuses on specific learning processes among students, such as self-efficacy. Self-efficacy development will increase the tendency of individuals toward social participation.
On the other hand, the social participation of children depends on their interaction with parents. Parents can adjust children with accepted and approved methods of organized social life. They also can teach their children social talents and utilities, especially social roles that they should play in society. As a fundamental institute, family plays a critical role in raising and nurturing children. Children's sociability and social participation are the implications of parenting styles., The impact of parent-child interaction on the socialization of children is examined based on the two approaches. One of them uses a typology approach to study parenting styles, and another one applies social interaction to address the nature of parent-child inner interactions. Parenting style plays a vital role in social intelligence. Family is the first effective and pervasive context for socialization.
Studies show that the authoritative parenting style leads to a wider range of achievements for adolescents compared to permissive and authoritarian styles. Authoritarian style leads to mental health, academic achievement, positive social-mental development, higher self-esteem, and higher social-cognitive competence. The above-mentioned styles may have both supportive and unsupportive roles for children. Children who receive supportive styles may gain some positive consequences such as self-efficacy, responsibility, and participation. Children who receive unsupportive parenting styles may experience different kinds of social harms such as lack of identity, isolationism, and violence-related behaviors.
Self-efficacy is a constructive ability by which the person organizes cognitive, social, emotional, and behavioral skills to actualize predetermined objectives effectively. Self-efficacy beliefs can affect the behavior, thoughts, and motivation of learners when working on their tasks. Those learners who do not sure about their competency for doing duty and those who do not believe in practice and effort as the factors leading to success usually feel anxiety and lack of competence. In contrast, those learners who believe in their merit can concentrate on problem-solving strategies. Individuals who have robust self-efficacy beliefs insist more on doing their duties with the best performance compared to those with weak self-efficacy. Accordingly, the first group is more willing to participate in social activities.,
According to the above-mentioned subjects, the parenting style of parents can affect the social participation of students. On the other hand, self-efficacy leads to social participation development. Hence, it is asked whether parenting styles can expand self-efficacy and social participation through self-efficacy. Therefore, this study aims to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relation of parenting style with social participation.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The extant study was carried out using the descriptive research method from type of correlational. The statistical population of research comprised all of the second-grade high-school students in Arak, Iran, in the academic year of 2018–2019. Using Cochrane Formula, the sample size equaled 510 members (255 boys and 255 girls). Participants were chosen based on the simple cluster and stratified sampling method. Actually among all students who were studying in second high school in Arak, based on gender 255 subjects in each sex were selected randomly. First were selected high school and then were selected students from each selected high school. Data analysis was done using the Structural Equation Method through Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) Software. The following instruments were employed to collect the data. The inclusion criteria included age range between 14 and 18 years old, having high school literacy, having no psychiatric disorders, and having ability to response to questionnaires. The exclusion criteria included satisfaction with participation in research and do not responding the questionnaires fully.
Bumrind parenting style questionnaire
This questionnaire was designed by Bumrind (1972). This scale includes 30 items to evaluate three permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parenting styles. Each style consists of 10 items. This scale is scored based on the 5-point Likert method. This questionnaire was normalized in Iran by Esfandyari (2004). The validity of this scale was approved by experts by using the content validity method. The reliability of this scale was measured using the internal consistency of items based on Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.69, 0.73, and 0.77, respectively, for permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parenting styles. The reliability of the scale in this study obtained 0.78 though Corobach's alpha.
Sherer's general self-efficacy scale
T845555l] i8 This scale was developed by Sherer et al. They calculated the validity of this scale using Cronbach's alpha of 0.76. The validity of this scale was assessed through the construct validity method. Barati carried out a study in Iran to examine the validity and reliability of this scale. The convergent validity of this questionnaire was done with a self-esteem scale, and results showed a 0.61 significant correlation. On the other hand, the construct validity of this questionnaire was approved. The reliability of the scale in this study obtained 0.81 though Cronbach's alpha.
Brannigan's Eagerness to participate in social activities
this questionnaire was designed by Brannigan. This 12-item scale evaluates a person's willingness to participate in different activities and ceremonies, as well as public places and communities. The items are scored based on the 5-pint Likert scale (never, somewhat, high, and very high). All items are scored directly without reverse scoring. The reliability coefficient of retest equaled 0.84 reported 6 weeks later by the authors, and the correlation coefficient of retest with eagerness to participate in social activities equaled 0.78 indicating concurrent validity of this questionnaire. Borjali reported the alpha coefficient of this questionnaire equal to 0.81, which implies the acceptable internal consistency of this instrument. The reliability of the scale in this study obtained 0.89 though Cronbach's alpha.
After gathering the data, analysis of the data was used by the path analysis though SmartPLS software. Before run model of path analysis, its assumptions were met.
| Results|| |
In terms of gender, 255 participants were female and 255 participants were male. In the context of education level, of studied 510 participants, 170 participants were studying in 10th grade, 170 members in 11th grade, and 170 participants in 12th grade. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the data through SmartPLS Software. To evaluate conceptual model fit, fit of measurement and structural, as well as overall fit, were tested. Model fit was examined in two parts of measurement and structural models. In the structural model, Cronbach's alpha, composite reliability (CR) index, convergent validity, and divergent validity were measured. Cronbach's alpha equaled 0.80, 0.84, 0.81, 0.78, and 0.87 for permissive style, authoritarian style, authoritative style, self-efficacy, and social participation, respectively; the obtained values are >0.70. Indexes with higher factor loads are more significant in the calculation of the CR coefficient; hence, this index is more proper than the alpha coefficient. In this research, the CR coefficient equaled 0.85, 0.88, 0.86, 0.88, and 0.89 for permissive style, authoritarian style, authoritative style, self-efficacy, and social participation, respectively. A third criterion, convergent validity is used to examine the measurement model fit based on the PLS method. This criterion shows the average variance shared between each construct and its indicators. The higher the index, the more the correlation, and the greater the fit rate. [Table 1] reports the results obtained from self-efficacy mediation in the relationship between parenting styles and social participation.
|Table 1: Direct and indirect effects of parenting styles on social participation with the mediation of self-efficacy|
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According to [Table 1], the direct effect of the permissive parenting style on social participation was rejected (t <1.96), and the indirect effect of it with self-efficacy mediation was confirmed based on the obtained coefficient rate of − 0.127 (t >1.96). Moreover, the effect of the permissive parenting style on social participation was confirmed through self-efficacy mediation because zero was not at the confidence interval of the bootstrapping test. Furthermore, the negative sign implies that a reduction in the permissive parenting style through self-efficacy mediation leads to an increase in the social participation of students. On the other hand, the direct effect of the authoritarian parenting style on social participation was rejected (t < 1.96), and the indirect effect of it with self-efficacy mediation was confirmed based on the obtained coefficient rate of − 0.211 (t > 1.96). Moreover, the effect of the authoritarian parenting style on social participation was confirmed through self-efficacy mediation because zero was not at the confidence interval of the bootstrapping test. Furthermore, the negative sign implies that a reduction in the authoritarian parenting style through self-efficacy mediation leads to an increase in the social participation of students. Finally, the direct effect of the authoritative parenting style on social participation was confirmed (.197). Besides, the indirect effect of the authoritative parenting style on social participation with self-efficacy mediation was confirmed (0.461), and the overall impact factor equaled 0.088 (t > 1.96). Because the zero rates were not placed at the confidence interval in the bootstrapping test, the effect of the authoritative parenting style on social participation through self-efficacy mediation was confirmed. Moreover, the positive sign implies that an increase in the authoritative parenting style leads to an increase in students' social participation through self-efficacy mediation. Overall, it can be stated that self-efficacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between parents' parenting styles and social participation among adolescents.
| Discussion|| |
The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relation of parenting style with the social participation of adolescents. Results showed that permissive, authoritative, and authoritarian parenting styles affected social participation through self-efficacy mediation. The obtained results are in line with findings obtained by Masud et al., Macmull and Ashkenazi, Ren, Jittaseno and Varma, To Llorca et al. According to mentioned results obtained by extant and previous studies, parents may negatively affect the self-efficacy of their children if parents cannot control their high-school students, if do not expect from them, or if be highly intimate with them, if passively face the misbehavior of children, if do not expect them to show reasonable behavior, if do not teach them to be independent, and if do not direct their children., Because of the direct and significant association between self-efficacy and participation in social activities,, a reduction in this variable will mitigate the participation and attendance in the social activities of children. The effect of self-efficacy on the self-esteem of individuals,,, will decrease social activities and participation of high-school students in social groups. On the other hand, if the parenting style of parents is chosen based on the specific favorite rules and principles of parents and if children are expected to obey these rules without any explanation, the rational authority will be replaced with tyranny at home and self-efficacy will be reduced. Such tyranny does not have a direct effect on the social participation of children but can reduce social activities and participation of high-school students through social media by affecting their self-efficacy and self-esteem.
Ultimately, previous studies have mentioned that a logical authoritative parenting style leads to mental health, academic achievement, self-efficacy,,, positive social-mental development, higher self-esteem, and greater social-cognitive competence. Therefore, if the parenting style is imposed by parents fairly based on the rational emotional responses and expectations as well as clarified and disciplined constraints, the child will feel encouragement and support given by parents., This parenting style can improve the social participation of children owing to the positive impact of this style on the self-efficacy of children.,, The logical authoritative parenting style will increase useful social activities and eager to participate in socialized activities by establishing a great social network in which individuals gain more social support.
| Conclusions|| |
According to the findings obtained from data analysis, self-efficacy may be improved through the authoritative parenting style of parents. This self-efficacy may increase the social participation of adolescents. Hence, self-efficacy plays a significant mediating role in the relation of parenting styles with the social participation of adolescents. As a research constraint, a self-report questionnaire was used in this study that can limit the range of answers given by subjects. It is recommended to conduct further studies on the impacts of parenting styles on children at different age ranges and different development stages in diverse emotional and social conditions. Furthermore, the impact of parenting styles can be assessed in single-parent families, second family, intercultural contexts, and ethnic and cultural characteristics.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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