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   2019| July-September  | Volume 6 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 26, 2019

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Relationship between knowledge of ergonomics and workplace condition with musculoskeletal disorders among nurses
Afshar Mohammad, Bahrami Abbas, Hamedian Narges
July-September 2019, 6(3):121-126
Aims: Using ergonomics principles are effective on increasing production, job satisfaction productivity, and reducing medical and healing costs. This study investigated the relationship between nurses' knowledge of ergonomic principles with their musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Materials and Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was performed on 260 nurses working in selected hospital in Kashan/Iran, 2018. The nurses were randomly recruited to the study. Data were collected through personal profile questionnaires, knowledge of the ergonomics of the workplace, the questionnaire of the workplace ergonomics, and Nordic skeletal musculoskeletal questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 16 software. Descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Pearson's correlation coefficient) were used for data analysis. Results: The nursing staff had low level of knowledge with a mean score of (2.20 ± 0.68). The ergonomic condition of the nurses' work environment was weak (2.50 ± 0.76). About 77% of participants reported the MSD (neck 62.7% and shoulder pain 49.2%) and the least difficulty was in the elbow region (20.4%). There was a significant and negative correlation between knowledge of ergonomics principles (r = −0.180) and ergonomics condition of the workplace (r = −0.160) with musculoskeletal injuries. Conclusion: The study findings indicated low level of knowledge of the nurses regarding the ergonomics of workplace principles. Furthermore, results showed the ergonomics of the workplace was poor. The prevalence of MSD was high, which needs appropriate training and respecting ergonomics principles in the workplace.
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The relationship between job satisfaction and the incidence of unsafe acts in metal smelting industry workers in 2017
Hossein Akbari, Masoud Motalebi Kashani, Zahra Asadi, Mahdieh Kaveh, Hamidreza Saberi
July-September 2019, 6(3):127-131
Introduction: The main cause of most occupational accidents is workers' unsafe acts. Many factors can affect unsafe behaviors. Job satisfaction is one of the most important factors for better job performance. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between job satisfaction and incidence of unsafe acts among workers in the metal smelting industry. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 112 workers employed in four metal smelting industries in Kashan were participated. The unsafe acts of these people were determined by observation and using the Tarrant checklist. Job satisfaction was assessed by Minnesota questionnaire with 20 items. Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Chi-square, and linear regression were used to data analysis. Results: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between unsafe acts with work unit, health and safety education, and working hours and also between job satisfaction with work unit, work shifts, job interest, and occupational accidents (P < 0.05).This study showed a significant negative correlation between job satisfaction and incidence of unsafe acts (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Reducing job satisfaction can be caused to elevation of unsafe acts, and implementation of programs for increasing employee satisfaction can lead to a reduction in occupational accidents.
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A pilot study of fear of disease consequences and its relationship with quality of life, depression and anxiety in patients with multiple sclerosis
Saber Azami-Aghdash, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad, Naser Derakhshani, Vida Poudratchi Asl, Behrouz Samei
July-September 2019, 6(3):132-135
Aims: This study aims to determine the relationship between fear of disease consequences and its relationship with quality of life, symptoms of depression, and anxiety in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Seventy patients suffering from MS were selected using the convinced sampling method. Data collection tools were included: Fear of Progression Questionnaire-Short Form, World Health Organizations Quality of Life-Brief, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Descriptive statistical methods, independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's correlation coefficient test, and linear regression model were used to analyze data by SPSS.22 software. Results: In this study, 38 (54.3%) of patients were male. Mean score of fear of the disease, quality of life, depression, and anxiety was 28.68 ± 9.18, 86.47 ± 14.11, 15.22 ± 4.86, and 15.85 ± 5.55, respectively. Results of Spearman's test indicated a significant relationship between fear of disease consequences on the one hand and quality of life (rs= −0.53), symptoms of depression (rs= −0.52), and anxiety (rs= −0.48) on the other hand (P < 0.001). Results of linear regression analysis demonstrated that there is a strength correlation between depression – as the predictive variable – and quality of life (P = 0.018, standard error [SE] = 0.793, β = −0.283 R2 = 0.57), and anxiety – as the predictive variable – and quality of life (P = 0.005, SE = 0.681, β = 0.332 R2 = 0.64). Conclusion: Considering negative effects of fear of the disease consequences on quality of life, symptoms of depression and anxiety, the patients should be informed about their own conditions, and appropriate mental and health cares should be provided, and effective interventions should be done to alleviate the fear of the patients.
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A comparative study of left ventricular function of people with and without D-type personality hospitalized for first-time myocardial infarction
Reza Bagherian-Sararoudi, Gholamreza Kheirabadi, Maryam Malek Mohammad, Avat Feizi, Hamid Saneai
July-September 2019, 6(3):115-120
Aim: This study is aimed to comparison between left ventricular (LV) function for people with and without type D personality hospitalized for the first time of myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: In a descriptive-analytical study, 150 patient hospitalized in heart care centers in Isfahan with definite MI diagnosis were selected by simple available sampling method. Data regarding the determination of D and non-D type of personality were collected by a 14-item questionnaire (DS14) and the results from LV performance evaluation using echocardiograph after 1st time heart attack and before clearance from hospital. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS software and t-test, Chi-square, linear and multiple regression tests. Results: The average of ejection fraction (EF) index in total patient was 43 ± 9.47 with the range of 15–60, 14 people (9.3%) normal EF and 136 people (90.7%) had abnormal EF. The average of EF index in 2 groups with D and non-D type of personality were 43.2 ± 10.5 and 42.9 ± 9, respectively, and based on t-test, the average of EF index in 2 groups had no significant difference (P = 0.86). Furthermore, 7 people (12.7%) in group D and 7 people (7.4%) in non-D group had normal EF, and in these two groups, 48 and 88 people had abnormal EF, respectively (87.3% vs. 92.6%), but according to Chi-square test, EF distribution in 2 personality types had no significant difference (P = 0.28). Conclusion: There is no significant relationship of type D personality with LVEF in people with first-time MI.
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Effect of aerobic training and Rosa damascena supplement on the memory of obese women
Masoumeh Razipour, Khadijeh Irandoust, Morteza Taheri
July-September 2019, 6(3):136-140
Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 8-week aerobic training and supplementation of Rosa damascene on the memory of obese women. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two obese women (age: 34.3 ± 5.6 years; fat percentage: above 35%; and waist-to-hip ratio: above 0.85) were selected based on convenience sampling in a quasi-experimental study, with pre- and post-test design with control group. The women were randomly divided and allocated into aerobic exercises with R. damascene supplement group (TS Group) (n = 9); aerobic training group with placebo (TP Group) (n = 8), aerobic training group (T Group) (n = 7), and control group (C Group) (n = 8). The memory status was evaluated by the Wechsler questionnaire at pretest and posttest. ANCOVA and paired t-test were performed for analyzing the data by SPSS for Windows. Results: The results suggested that all the three experimental groups had a significant improvement in memory index (P ≤ 0.05). The results also indicated that TS group had a significant improvement in memory condition compared to other groups (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that the use of R. damascene with aerobic exercise had a significant effect on the memory of obese women. Therefore, given the positive effects of R. damascene and aerobic exercise, this strategy can be used to improve the memory of obese women.
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Stability while walking is affected by walking speed and cognitive load
Masoud Mirmoezzi, Mahdi Namazizadeh, Heydar Sadeghi, Fariba Mohammadi
July-September 2019, 6(3):141-146
Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of walking speed and cognitive load on learning gait stability in younger and older adults. Materials and Methods: Ten adults (five males and five females) and ten elderly (five males and five females) were healthy volunteers without a history of falls. He was asked to do three tasks on a treadmill with speed (preferred, fast, and slow) with/without cognitive load. The gait-stability ratio (GSR) for each of the above conditions was calculated in terms of both younger and older adults. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the mean differences at a significance level of 0.05. Results: The results showed that the cognitive performance score decreases with increasing speed. Moreover, at faster and slower speeds than prefer speed with/without cognitive load, GSR is higher, and this value was observed more in elderly than in adults (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The elderly, through different walking strategies, especially the lowering phase, provide more double support while walking, so that they will fall less with increasing steadiness.
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Assessment in competency-based medical education: Significance and the existing challenges
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
July-September 2019, 6(3):147-148
  321 102 -
Preventing the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among food-producing animals
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
July-September 2019, 6(3):149-150
  233 72 -