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Ochratoxin a in food products in Iran: A systematic review of the evidence
Reza Sharafati Chaleshtori, Elham Salehi
April-June 2018, 5(2):25-32
Aims: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic metabolite, which is produced by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. This mold growth increases in abuse adequate moisture and temperature in food storage time and produces mycotoxins. The aim of this study was the evaluation of OTA in various foods with reviews of other studies in Iran from 2000 to 2016. Instrument and Methods: The literature was evaluated by searching the electronic databases of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, SID, Science Direct, Iran Medex, Magiran, and Google scholar. Results: Based on obtained results, the breakfast cereal, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut, almond, white grape juice, white pepper, dried sour cherry, dried peach, and dried pineapple samples were not contaminated with OTA. In the conducted studies, the highest rate of the contamination with OTA was in grape juice, raisin, black and red pepper, fig, dried quince, and coconut samples. Conclusion: The results showed that the most contaminated samples had OTA levels lower than the Iranian national standards and European Union regulations. Nevertheless, it seems necessary to focus on the reduction of mold contamination and OTA in various foods in Iran.
  1,426 222 -
Modeling the consequences of accidents during the process of transferring waste thinner from the paint shop of an automotive industry using aloha software
Masoud Allahyari Mehrabani, Samira Ghiyasi
July-September 2018, 5(3):55-61
Aims: During the past decade, the application of engineering and managerial techniques for designing a variety of qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods and modeling the consequences of accidents have had a great contribution to the promotion of safety in the industrial systems. The present study was conducted to identify and prioritize safety risks in one of the automotive industries. Risk management of the operation of transferring waste thinner from the paint shop represents a critical issue owing to special safety. Materials and Methods: One of the most important theories for the modeling of events is the bowtie analyzing method. Bowtie is a qualitative analyzing method which incorporates managerial system techniques and provides a highly accurate analysis in the form of fault and event trees. In the present study, the process of risk identification and management was carried out using the Bowtie analyzing method and the obtained results were applied to the structure of a bowtie graph and the consequence was modeled using ALOHA software. Results: In the study, the operation of transferring waste thinner from the paint shop of an automotive industry was examined. Possible safety risks that may happen during the loading and unloading operations of the waste thinners were detected using bowtie analyzing method and the modeling of fire at chemical tanker carrying thinner and also the modeling of BLEVE phenomenon was conducted. The results represent that the area, in which employees are stationed is at very high risk that in the event of a possible fire, the personnel will be quickly caught in fireballs caused by the burning of thinner. Conclusion: According to the results, it was found that one of the administrative units is positioned inappropriately and incorrectly in the vicinity of thinner loading station that in the case of nondisplacement of the mentioned unit and the incident of fire or explosion in the place of loading and unloading of thinner, undoubtedly there would be fire at the mentioned administrative unit.
  1,016 176 -
Impact of multimodal preoperative preparation program on parental anxiety
Priya Reshma Aranha, Larissa Martha Sams, Prakash Saldanha
January-March 2018, 5(1):6-10
Background: Hospitalization and surgery are stressful experiences for children and their parents. Therefore, preoperative preparation of parents becomes essential. Objective: The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of multimodal preoperative preparation program (MPPP) on parental anxiety, to find the association of parental anxiety with the selected demographic variables of parents, and to measure the satisfaction of parents regarding the preparation of children for surgery. Materials and Methods: A quasiexperimental study was conducted in a selected multispecialty hospital. Using the purposive sampling technique, a total of 110 parents of children in the age group 8–12 years were assigned to control (n = 55) and intervention (n = 55) groups, respectively. The MPPP was administered to intervention group. The parents in the control group received the routine preoperative care. Parental anxiety was assessed on admission before shifting the child to operation theater 6 h, 12 h, and 48 h after surgery whereas the parental satisfaction was measured at 48 h after surgery. Results: The mean scores of parental anxiety were significantly lower in the intervention group than that of control group (P < 0.05). Parents in the intervention group had significantly higher satisfaction level than that of control group (P < 0.05). The study did not find any significant association between the parental anxiety and selected demographic variables of parents. Conclusion: The MPPP is effective in reducing parental anxiety and can be effectively used in pediatric surgical units to prepare the parents for their child's surgery.
  932 149 1
Identification of health, safety, and environment aspects and hazards in loghman hospital and manage of their risks using analytical hierarchy process technique
Mona SarAbadani, Samira Ghiyasi
July-September 2018, 5(3):86-92
Aims: The present study was conducted to identify and prioritize Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) risk in Loghman hospital. Risk management of hospitals represents a critical issue owing to special safety, health, biological and infection risks, and hospital wastes. Materials and Methods: This study is, in terms of the purpose, an applied research. Statistical population includes 68 managers and experts of risk management in Loghman hospital of Iran. A targeted sampling method was used for sampling. Five points were selected to identify and evaluate the risks at which field visits were made and the checklists were completed. The identified risks were extracted from the checklists and worksheets for identification and evaluation of the risks were completed based on failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) method. Priority of risks obtained by analytical hierarchy process technique was quiet close to that achieved by FMEA approach. Results: Occurrence probability, severity, and detectability of HSE risks were identified using FMEA technique. According to the results, lack of emergency exit with normal weight of 0.143 has the highest priority, followed by lack of building strength (normal weight of 0.114), electricity (0.113), and biological contamination (0.107). Inconsistency rate was estimated close to zero (<0.1), suggesting reliability of the results. Conclusion: According to the results, Loghman hospital lacks emergency exit due to old nature of the building which causes a serious threat for both hospital and people. An emergency exit gate can be constructed for each floor that can be used in emergency events and hence, minimize the estimated risk. Considering low strength of the building due to its old nature, the hospital can be reconstructed through a sophisticated engineering plan. At first, this proposal may not be suitable owing to high cost; however, much higher cost will be imposed if a disaster occurs.
  958 106 -
The effect of active and passive recovery on creatine kinase and C-reactive protein after an exercise session in football players
Mohammad Saeed Mostafavi Darani, Bahram Abedi, Hoseyn Fatolahi
January-March 2018, 5(1):1-5
Aims: One of the important issues in the context of exercise physiology is apply the best recovery methods completely after intense physical activities. Recovery methods will decrease the risk of muscle damage and subsequent inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the recovery procedures on changes of creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) after an exercise session simulated in professional football players. Methods: Thirty Iran's Azadegan League football players were participated in this research (age: 22.4 ± 2.38, height: 179.1 ± 2.63 cm, weight: 68.5 ± 4.82 kg, body mass index: 21.5 ± 2.10 kg/m2). After exercise protocol, simulation team randomly divided the participants into three groups (n = 10) under an active recovery on land, floating in the cold water (10°C), and passive recovery for 12 min. The levels of serum CK and CRP were collected immediately, 24 h, and 48 h after the exercise protocol. Findings: The results showed a significant decrease in CK and CRP after training in cold-water immersion method comparing to the other methods (P < 0.05). In addition, the level of CRP was significantly less than passive recovery 48 h postexercise recovery (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that if recovery in cold water was used immediately after exercise, much better results are obtained in future periods. This means that immersion method in cold water probably leads to decreased signs of muscle soreness and inflammatory responses in male football players.
  797 160 1
Ergonomic relationship during work in nursing staff of intensive care unit with operating room
Yousef Mahmoudifar, Bayaneh Seyedamini
April-June 2017, 4(2):42-47
Background and Objectives: High prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, especially in jobs such as nursing which covers tasks like patients' repositioning, has attracted great attentions from occupational healthcare experts to necessitate the knowledge of ergonomic science. Therefore, this study was performed aiming at ergonomic relationship during work in nursing staff of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with operating room. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study (cohort), fifty personnel of ICU staff and fifty of operating room staff were selected through a census method and were assessed using tools such as Nordic questionnaire and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) standards in terms of body posture ergonomics. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software and Chi-Square test after collection. Results: The most complaints were from the operating room group (68%) and ICU staff (60%) for the lumbar musculoskeletal system. There was a significant relationship between the total REBA scores of body, legs, neck, arm, force status, load fitting with hands and static or dynamic activities in the operating room and ICU staff groups (P < 0.05). In operating room and ICU groups, most subjects obtained score 11–15 and very high-risk level. Conclusion: Nurses working at operating room and ICU ward are subjected to high-risk levels and occupational injuries which is dramatically resulted from inappropriate body posture or particular conditions of their works. As a result, taking corrective actions along with planning and identifying ways will help prohibiting the prevalence of disorders in the future.
  792 146 -
Increasing trend of pediculosis (Pediculus Humanus Capitis) in Lamerd, Farashband, and Marvdasht Cities, Southern Iran
Zahra Soltani, Davood Keshavarzi
April-June 2018, 5(2):38-42
Aim: The aim of this study was to report the trend of pediculosis among people in Lamerd, Farashband, and Marvdasht cities, Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective study of patients with a definite diagnosis of Pediculus humanus capitis in 2012–2015. Information recorded for each patient included the gender, age, residence, and the season of diagnosis. Results: In Lamerd, Marvdasht, and Farashband, the total numbers of pediculosis cases were 1675, 954, and 509 cases, respectively. In those three cities, the highest number of cases was found in the year 2015 (1568 n) and lowest was in 2012 (431 n). This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In all cities, the number of females (2921 n) was higher than males (217 n) (P < 0.05). The highest prevalence of disease was seen in female children between the ages of 6–12 years (1787 n) while the lowest prevalence was seen in male children <6 years old (8 n). Considering the residence, the majority of cases in Marvdasht (549 n) and Farashband (401 n) were from urban areas, and the difference was statistically significant only in the city of Farashband. In those cities, totally, the highest and lowest number of cases was observed in the autumn and summer, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that the disease trend is increasing in recent years. Advance in socioeconomic conditions and also implementing health education programs for kids, parents, and sick people may help in controlling this disease.
  767 149 -
Investigation on the relationship between mental workload and musculoskeletal disorders among nursing staff
Yousef Mahmoudifar, Bayaneh Seyedamini
January-March 2018, 5(1):16-20
Aims: High prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts between nursing staff. High level of workload is considered as a serious problem and identified as a stressor in the nursing. This study intends to recognize the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload in nursing personnel reside at southern part of West Azerbaijan province Iran in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 100 nurses working in West Azerbaijan hospitals have been randomly selected. Nordic and National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index workload questionnaires have been simultaneously utilized as data collection tools. Data analysis has also carried out using SPSS, variance analysis tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Results suggest that the most frequent complaints of musculoskeletal problems are associated to the back area. Investigation on sextet scales of mental workload indicates that each of the six scales of workload was at the high-risk level and the average of total workload was 72.45 ± 19.45 which confirms a high-risk level. Pearson's correlation coefficient also indicates mental workload elements have a significant relationship with musculoskeletal disorders (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest there is a relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload and the majority of personnel had mental workload with high-risk level. The best way of management planning to mitigate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders arising of mental workload is, therefore, managing-controlling approach such as staff training, job rotation, and time management.
  718 155 -
Alcohol abuse in Iranian adolescents: A mediational model of parental monitoring and affiliation with deviant peers
Sajad Aminimanesh, Javad Khodadadi Sangdeh, Khodabakhsh Ahmadi, Alimohammad Nazari, Mostafa Khanzade
April-June 2017, 4(2):36-41
Aims: This study aimed to determine the attitudes toward alcohol abuse among students in Tehran and to develop and test a model of the relationships among parental monitoring and affiliation with deviant peers as they predict youth alcohol abuse. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1266 adolescents were recruited from high schools in Tehran and three scales of alcohol abuse, parental monitoring, and adolescent affiliation with deviant peers were completed for them. Data were analyzed using independent sample t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and structural equations modeling. Results: The results of this study indicated that 7.4% of individuals had a positive attitude toward alcohol abuse. The percentage of positive attitude among males was nearly 2 times more than females. The study model was confirmed and explained 0.42 of attitudes toward alcohol abuse variance. Moreover, affiliation with deviant peers had a mediating role in the relationship between Parental Monitoring and attitude toward alcohol abuse. Conclusion: According to the results, parental monitoring and affiliation with deviant peers could explain the alcohol abuse among adolescents. Therefore, it is suggested to include these factors in prevention programs aimed at reducing alcohol abuse.
  802 65 -
The effect of positive couple therapy on the happiness of mothers of exceptional children
Yadollah Ansari, Fahimeh Sanaei
April-June 2018, 5(2):43-47
Background and Purpose: Happiness is one of the components of attention of the World Health Organization, which has a direct relationship with mental health and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of positive couple therapy on the happiness of mothers of children with special needs. Research hypothesis states that mothers who receive intervention will have more happiness than mothers in the control group. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental research with pre-/posttest design with control group. Among mothers of children with special needs in Mashhad, Iran, twenty participants were selected in a purposeful method and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (ten participants in each group). Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to collect the data. To analyze the data, covariance analysis was used at inferential level, and the mean and standard deviation were used at descriptive level. Results: The results indicated that the happiness of mothers of children with special needs who received the intervention was significantly increased. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that couple therapy with a positive attitude is effective in increasing the happiness of mothers of children with special needs in Mashhad city, Iran.
  677 129 -
Sleep quality and related factors among the nurses of the Hospital of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Zahra Sepehrmanesh, Gholamabbas Mousavi, Hamidreza Saberi, Rezvan Saei
January-March 2017, 4(1):17-21
Aim: Sleep and rest are the essential physiological needs of human. Nurses are at risk of developing sleep problems than others because of having various shift work. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sleep quality and related factors in the nurses. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 nurses were selected randomly from Shahid Beheshti Educational Hospital of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, 2016. Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index and demographic questionnaire were used for the detection of sleep quality. Results: The mean age of cases was 51.31 years, and most of them (73%) were female. The majority of them had rotating shift work and worked over 150 h per month. 95.5% (191 cases) of them had poor sleep quality. The mean total score of sleep quality in females was higher than males (P = 0.04). The nurses with rotating shift work had higher mean total score of sleep quality than nurses with fixed shift work. Nurses with over 150 h per month had more problems in daily function than others (P = 0.04). Conclusion: These results present that the majority of the nurses had poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality could be affect function, mental and physical health, and secondary effect delivery service to patients. Therefore, attention to this issue and strategies for improved sleep quality is necessary.
  667 118 1
Assessing the nosocomial infections' rate and the antibiotic resistance pattern among the patient hospitalized in beheshti hospital during 2013
Manijeh Kadkhodaei, Mohammad Reza Sharif, Mohammad Ali Saba, Gholam Abbass Mousavi
January-March 2018, 5(1):11-15
Aims: Nosocomial infection is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and length of stay. Detection of infection, identify the etiology of bacterial antibiotic resistance pattern, is necessary given the widespread use of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant organisms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 288 patients admitted to the Beheshti Hospitals in Kashan based on NNIS definitions according to the state of Health and Medical education. In this study infections and antibiotic resistance symptoms were found. Data analyses were performed with Chi-square test. Results: Among the 288 patients studied, with mean out of hospital infection was 0.80%. Most cases of infection associated were pneumonia. The highest rates of infection were in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with 51.7%. Nosocomial infection in ICU wards was associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The most common types were ventilator-associated pneumonia. Among the microorganisms, negative Gram was seen more. The common pathogens were including Acinetobacter, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella. Antimicrobial resistance was generally increasing and had emerged from selective pressure from antibiotic use and transmission through health staff. Conclusion: This study showed a correlation between antibiotic use and resistance of microorganisms is significant. Hence, it seems that reducing aggressive acts and conduct hygiene education and monitoring act of antibiotics is necessary to prevent antibiotic resistance.
  645 127 -
Antibacterial activity of different extracts of prawn shell (Macrobrachium nipponense) against human bacterial pathogens
Katayoon Karimzadeh, Masoumeh Pormehr
January-March 2017, 4(1):13-16
Aims: Bioactive compounds existing in crustacean shells have the potential to inhibit the growth of some pathogenic microorganism. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different extracts of prawn shells (Macrobrachium nipponense) on some human pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Sampling (prawn) was conducted in summer 2014 from Anzali wetland in southern coast of Caspian Sea. Then, the hydroalcoholic, methanolic, and acetone extracts of prawn shells were applied for this purpose. Two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli) were used as test organisms. The antibacterial activity was determined by paper disk diffusion. Results: The prawn shell extracts showed activity against pathogenic bacteria. The highest antibacterial activities were measured in B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae with the zone of inhibition being 12.12 ± 0.32 mm, 12.51 ± 0.14 mm, and 12.35 ± 0.27 mm, respectively. Among all the strains, S. aureus exhibits a significant zone of inhibition against all extracts (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that different prawn shell extracts, particularly hydroalcoholic, have bactericidal effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae species.
  657 111 -
Effect of distance learning on (health worker) behvarz knowledge level in comparison with other health teams of Kashan, health care systems in the field of PHC (Primary Health Care) 2014
Zohre Rajabi, Monika Motaghi
April-June 2018, 5(2):33-37
Background: Health education is the first and most important step in health care. Then, it is necessary to pay attention to personnel training. Methods: The research population is all employees of Kashan University of Medical Sciences who were selected through the census. Educational pamphlets were sent to the centers and the first test was held. After 2 months, the test was resumed. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and paired t-test. Results: The highest percentage of correct responses by groups of community health workers, technicians, and experts struggles with illness, family health expert technicians, and midwives-related topic drugs are estimated to be in the home health. The lowest percentage of correct answers was to issues related to physical activity pyramid, pyramid charts, and knowledge of physical activity. The findings of this study showed that there was no significant difference between the study groups with community health workers' knowledge of aging issues, depression, health, miracle foods, drugs, home health assessment, and cough natural asthma in children, bandages and dressings, child abuse, thalassemia research on home health care, quality improvement, empowerment, injection safety, physical activity, and oral health pyramid (in 80% of paired comparisons between groups of the worker). Conclusion: Due to the lack of significant differences between knowledge community health workers and other health team members in most comparisons of educational programs in primary health care for health professionals, it seems that university education should be done with higher qualifications for high academic degrees and if we learn more to community health workers, we can expect high performance from them.
  595 158 -
Unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy masquerading as malignant neoplasm: Actinomycosis – The Culprit
Pinki Pandey, Megha Ralli, Savita Agarwal, Ranjan Agarwal
January-March 2018, 5(1):21-23
Actinomycosis is an infrequent bacterial infection encountered nowadays, caused by anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium of Actinomyces species. We report an unusual case of a unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy in a 40-year-old male, caused by actinomycosis masquerading as malignant tumor. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of actinomycosis causing unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy have previously been published. Since this anaerobic organism is difficult to culture, the diagnosis is made by observing its associated sulfur granules in the biopsy specimens. Still, actinomycosis represents an important entity in today's context as it is the great masquerader of the head-and-neck lesions because of its myriad presentation that may mimic other common diseases, the difficulties involved in its diagnosis, and the long course of treatment mandatory to eradicate the disease.
  647 92 -
Study of the mediation role of acceptance and mindfulness in relation between behavioral inhibition/activation system sensitivity and emotional distress
Rozna Asgharnezhad, Reza Abdi
July-September 2018, 5(3):76-81
Context: Emotional disturbances are caused by various factors that include two general biological and cognitive components. Understanding the factors affecting emotional disturbances is important in improving the quality of life of individuals. Aims: This study was aimed to determine the mediation role of acceptance and mindfulness in relation between behavioral inhibition/activation system sensitivity and emotional distress of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch. Settings and Design: The research method of the study was descriptive form type of correlational. Subjects and Methods: The statistical population of the study included all students of the Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch. Among them, 380 participants (190 females and 190 males) were selected through cluster random sampling. To collect the data, Carver and White's (1994) behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales, Bond et al. 's (2007) second version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, and Bauer et al.'s (2006) five-facet mindfulness questionnaire and depression, anxiety, and stress scale, were used. Statistical Analysis Used: To analyze the data, the Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression were used. Results: The findings indicated that behavioral inhibition/activation systems, acceptance, and mindfulness could significantly predict about 45% of depression variance, 53% of anxiety variance, and 41% of stress variance of emotional distress. Conclusions: According to the findings, it could be concluded that stress, anxiety, and depression as emotional distress are the result of the behavioral inhibition/activation systems that they are the result of the acceptance and mindfulness effect. In fact, the acceptance and mindfulness have the mediation role in relation between behavioral inhibition/activation system sensitivity and emotional distress. In order to regulate emotions, it should be pay attention to behavioral inhibition/activation systems, acceptance, and mindfulness.
  599 134 1
Comparing the effect of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercise program on the level of resistin and high reactive protein C of overweight and obese women
Zeynab Shafiee, Gholamreza Sharifi
January-March 2017, 4(1):1-6
History and Objective: Obesity is one of the health risks factors, and aerobic exercise is one of the means to prevent and control obesity. The research was designed to compare methods of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercises on resistin and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum level of overweight and obese women. Research Methodology: In this semi-experimental research, 36 voluntary overweight or obese women were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 12) of aerobic, resistance, and concurrent exercise programs. The training included 8 weeks of exercise performed with 55%–75% of 1-repetition maximum weight lifting. The aerobic exercise was performed at 55%–75% of maximum oxygen consumption and concurrent training included both programs for 3 days/week. The resistin and CRP serum level of the participant was measured 48 h before the start and again 48 h after the termination of the exercise protocol. The statistical analysis was performed on data using SPSS 22.0 (Chicago, USA). One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test was employed to test the hypothesis at significance level set to 0.05. Results: The result indicated that exercise program significantly decreased CRP level of blood serum (P < 0.05) in all exercise groups. Such effect was present in aerobic and concurrent exercise group but not on the resistance group for resistin level (P > 0.05). Discussion: Aerobic exercise regardless of types has a beneficiary effect on CPR, but resistin level needs different types of exercise to change in overweight and obese women. Conclusion: Some aerobic exercises are beneficiary for overweight and obese women health.
  636 96 1
Effective stressors in clinical education
Bayaneh Seyedamini, Yousef Mahmoudifar, Yasar Esmaeillou
July-September 2018, 5(3):104-109
Aims: Nursing and midwifery students experience multiple stressors in the clinical setting that can affect their proper functioning. Therefore, the objective of this research was the effective stressors in clinical education among nursing and midwifery students of Islamic Azad University, Mahabad in 2016. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study of applied type. The statistical population was nursing and midwifery students of the Azad University of Mahabad in 2016. The sample size was selected in clinical setting to be 300 person. The data gathering tool was a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of two sections of demographic information and a section of the stressful factors of clinical education in eight domains and 106 items. The validity of this questionnaire was determined by content validity. Hence, the reliability of this tool was confirmed by a test–retest method with a correlation of 0.89. The partial least square (PLS) method, independent t-test, and Friedman test were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the interpersonal communication, environmental factors, educational planning, personal–social factors, university education factors, unpleasant experiences, and clinical experiences with stress (P = 0.000). However, there was not a statistically significant relationship between the humiliating experiences and the feeling of tension in students (P ≤ 0.218). Furthermore, Friedman test showed that the most important stressor on students' perception of their stress in the clinical environment is environmental factors. Conclusion: The results of stressful factors in clinical education indicated lack of significance in all areas except for humiliating experiences area. Therefore, the authorities should take necessary steps to control and manage stress in students and increase the quality of education by holding workshops and the formation of the committee or the community to examine these factors, given all the stressful areas in the clinical education setting, especially environmental factors.
  634 95 -
Indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and sick building syndrome symptoms in office workers of petroleum industry health organization
Mohammad Javad Jafari, Ali Asghar Khajevandi, Fahimeh Karamali, Fatemeh Zabeti
July-September 2018, 5(3):82-85
Aims: High prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts. High prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts and Work-related absenteeism between office workers. The aims of this study were to assess the association of indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations with SBS prevalence among employees in two office buildings of Petroleum Industry Health Organization in Tehran city. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 170 employees of the two office buildings of Petroleum Industry Health Organization in Tehran city have been selected. HSE questionnaire was combined with Skov's questionnaire as data collection tools. Questionnaire data analysis has also carried out using SPSS and Chi-square independent sample t-test. CO2concentrations were measured using calibrated instruments. Results: The results suggested that the CO2concentration in both buildings is higher than the threshold limit. CO2concentration was significantly associated with some symptoms such as dry throat (P = 0.028), shortness of breath (P = 0.028), nasal irritation (P = 0.008), dizziness (P = 0.0312), headache (P = 0.0315), nausea (P = 0.049), and sickness (P = 0.023). Conclusion: The prevalence of syndrome symptoms in women was higher than men. Some of SBS symptoms were exacerbated by increasing CO2concentrations among the employee.
  578 124 -
Epidemiological and clinical study on the cutaneous leishmaniasis in Aran and Bidgol, center of Iran
Sima Rasti, Mahdi Delavari, Tayebeh Sadat Tekieh Arani, Seyed Gholam Abbas Mousavi
July-September 2018, 5(3):72-75
Aims: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a skin infection that causes various forms of ulcers and also remains scars even after treatment. This disease is prevalent in many countries of Middle East including Iran. Since determining the species of the parasite is important for prevention and control programs, this study was conducted to identify Leishmania species in Aran and Bidgol, Isfahan province, center of Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 112 CL suspected patients who referred to health centers of Aran and Bidgol. Serosity of the wound was collected, and amastigote form was detected by microscopic method. After extraction of DNA from serosity, kDNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify Leishmania species. Results: Fifty-four of all suspected CL samples (48.2%) were positive microscopically, while 55 (49.1%) were positive using kDNA-PCR. The results of PCR revealed that 51 isolates (92.7%) were Leishmania major and 4 (7.3%) Leishmania tropica, respectively. The most lesion form caused by L. major was papular or volcanic-like, while all of wounds caused by L. tropica were papular/nodular forms. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the predominant species was L. major and zoonotic CL is more prevalent in this region.
  535 138 -
The effect of aquatic training on kinematic walking patterns of elderly women
Khadijeh Irandoust, Morteza Taheri
January-March 2019, 6(1):1-5
Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic training course on the kinematic walking patterns of elderly women. Materials and Methods: Thirty elderly women aged 60–70, who had entry criteria for research, voluntarily entered the study process, of which nine women refused to continue cooperation. Participants were randomly assigned into control (n = 10, 63.2 ± 3.1) and experimental groups (n = 10, average age 64.4 ± 3.3). The exercise program consisted of an 8 week of aquatic protocol, three sessions a week, and each session was performed for 60 min. The h/p/cosmos gait analyzer was used to evaluate the kinematic patterns of walking on the treadmill with the force plate, and the velocity variables (km/h), cadency (steps/min), step length (Cm), and step time (s) were measured in two stages of pretest and posttest. Results: The results suggested that aquatic training had a significant effect on the kinematic patterns of walking (walking speed, cadency, and length of step) in elderly women (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Since walking patterns and walking quality have a significant effect on maintaining balance and functional independence in the elderly populations, any intervention that improves these patterns will have a significant effect on the balance of elderly people. Therefore, water resistance exercises can improve the walking patterns in elderly women.
  508 136 1
Salinity variation in Kashan plain groundwater resources
Davarkhah Rabbani, Mohammad Hadi Fattahi, Nima Mazroii, Rouhullah Dehghani
July-September 2018, 5(3):68-71
Aims: The trend of withdrawal from groundwater resources in Kashan plain has been increased during the recent 40 years. For example, the number of deep wells has been increased from 67 in 1965 to 927 in 2003. As a result, the well discharges and water quality have been diminishing. Hence, this research was aimed to study the salinity variation modeling in Kashan plain groundwater resource. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research was done based on recorded data for some wells in Kashan plain. First, the data from 112 wells were considered then, 16 wells with more complete data were selected for analysis. Total dissolved solids (TDSs) were considered as the salinity index. Results: The results showed that, in Kashan plain, the mean of salinity has been increased from 1190 mg/L to more than 1400 mg/L during 7 years. Although the salinity has been somewhat less after each annual precipitation, the trend is upward. Minimum and maximum of TDS were identified taken samples from wells number 27 and 47, respectively. Maximum rate of salinity was found in wells number 53 and 55, while the minimum was related to well number 54. Conclusions: The groundwater salinity in Kashan plain has an upward trend. The groundwater salinity can be related to some major factors such as distance from Salt Lake, less annual precipitation, and more withdrawal from the aquifer in the recent decades. Since the later can be managed withdrawal, especially for agricultural activities have to be minimized as the most effective way for prevention of the groundwater quality degradation.
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Effects of different daytime exercises on the quality of sleep and appetite of obese women
Khadijeh Irandoust, Morteza Taheri
October-December 2018, 5(4):111-114
Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daytime aerobic exercise on the subsequent sleep and appetite of obese women. Materials and Methods: It was a semi-experimental study with pre and post-test design. Fifteen obese women were asked to do aerobic exercises three sessions a week for 2 weeks, with each session lasting 60 min at 60% of maximum heart rate either at 9:00 am or 18:00 pm. A body composition analyzer (InBody-320, South Korea) was used to measure weight, fat percentage, and body mass index (BMI). Nocturnal sleep–wake schedule data and sleep patterns in the two conditions (morning vs. evening) were recorded at 1-min intervals and scored with the Actiwatch Sleep Analysis 8 software. Paired t-test and independent t-test were used to analyze the data. Results: Results (age, 46.9 ± 5.2 years; BMI, 33.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2; and percentage of body fat ≥35%) showed that sleep efficiency, wake bouts, actual sleep, and sleep latency were improved after exercise training (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, morning exercise condition resulted in a better improvement in sleep efficiency (73.41% ± 6.94%), wake bouts (15.81% ± 3.30%), and sleep latency (79.47% ± 6.09%) compared to that of evening exercise (P ≤ 0.05). It was also reported that the perceived satiety was not significantly different in the two conditions (P = 0.94 and P = 0.076, respectively, for morning and evening), while the perceived hungry was improved significantly in the morning condition (P = 0.003). Conclusion: As a result, aerobic exercises at the time of the morning can lead to a better quality of sleep and decline in hungry of obese women compared to the evening exercise.
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Discovery of the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts: Qualitative study
Fahimeh Namdarpour, Maryam Fatehizade, Fatemeh Bahrami, Rahmatollah Mohammadi Fesharaki
October-December 2017, 4(4):79-83
Background and Objectives: Rumination is the predisposing and continuing factor of depression. Since women are prone to rumination, the purpose of this study was to discover the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on a qualitative method basis, and target society was composed of women with marital conflicts and rumination. The sample was selected from among those referring to Isfahan counseling centers and was statured with 15 persons through purposeful sampling method. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews and data analysis was performed based on thematic analysis. Results: Five main categories were obtained from data analysis: root cause analysis, feeling incompetence, remembrance of bitter memories, negative emotions, and hesitation in continuation of couple relationship. Conclusion: The findings indicate that when women with marital conflicts become ruminant, the course of rumination is so that it could harm continuation of their couple relationship. Therefore, to reduce this damage, interventions are required to intervene effectively in this process.
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Attitude of staff of Kashan university of medical sciences concerning their annual performance
Seyed Ahmad Hosseini Golafshani, Abbas Ansaritabar, Gholamreza Hoseindoost, Mahmood Atharizadeh
April-June 2018, 5(2):48-53
Background: Performance assessment in organizations can lead to healthy relationships in the workplace, and it also pays grounds for intellectual growth and improvement of staff performance. This study examines the attitudes of Staff of Kashan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services about their annual performance. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 714 staff were randomly selected. The data of this study were collected by a questionnaire, whose validity and credit were tested. Then, in two stages, samples of 52 and 56 persons were taken and by two-half method and calculating the homogeneity coefficient and the Cronbach's coefficient alpha and Kuder-Richardson coefficients in the second step get to the Cronbach's coefficient alpha 93% that final validity was acceptable. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. (Chicago, SPSS Inc.). Results: The results of this study showed that the mean and standard deviation of age of the employees were 37.16 ± 7.1 years and their working history was 12.4 ± 7.7 years. A total of 256 participants (35.8%) considered the current evaluation as inappropriate or completely inappropriate performance assessment, 303 participants (42.4%) almost appropriate, 155 participants (21.7%) suitable or perfectly suitable. About 47.9% of participants rated the best period of evaluation yearly, and 552 participants (77.3%) of the statistical society were considered assessment in the presence of the employee appropriate. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the attitude of more than 50% of employees was positive about the annual performance assessment.
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