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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Ochratoxin a in food products in Iran: A systematic review of the evidence
Reza Sharafati Chaleshtori, Elham Salehi
April-June 2018, 5(2):25-32
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_4_18  
Aims: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic metabolite, which is produced by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. This mold growth increases in abuse adequate moisture and temperature in food storage time and produces mycotoxins. The aim of this study was the evaluation of OTA in various foods with reviews of other studies in Iran from 2000 to 2016. Instrument and Methods: The literature was evaluated by searching the electronic databases of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, SID, Science Direct, Iran Medex, Magiran, and Google scholar. Results: Based on obtained results, the breakfast cereal, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut, almond, white grape juice, white pepper, dried sour cherry, dried peach, and dried pineapple samples were not contaminated with OTA. In the conducted studies, the highest rate of the contamination with OTA was in grape juice, raisin, black and red pepper, fig, dried quince, and coconut samples. Conclusion: The results showed that the most contaminated samples had OTA levels lower than the Iranian national standards and European Union regulations. Nevertheless, it seems necessary to focus on the reduction of mold contamination and OTA in various foods in Iran.
  479 121 -
Effect of distance learning on (health worker) behvarz knowledge level in comparison with other health teams of Kashan, health care systems in the field of PHC (Primary Health Care) 2014
Zohre Rajabi, Monika Motaghi
April-June 2018, 5(2):33-37
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_29_17  
Background: Health education is the first and most important step in health care. Then, it is necessary to pay attention to personnel training. Methods: The research population is all employees of Kashan University of Medical Sciences who were selected through the census. Educational pamphlets were sent to the centers and the first test was held. After 2 months, the test was resumed. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and paired t-test. Results: The highest percentage of correct responses by groups of community health workers, technicians, and experts struggles with illness, family health expert technicians, and midwives-related topic drugs are estimated to be in the home health. The lowest percentage of correct answers was to issues related to physical activity pyramid, pyramid charts, and knowledge of physical activity. The findings of this study showed that there was no significant difference between the study groups with community health workers' knowledge of aging issues, depression, health, miracle foods, drugs, home health assessment, and cough natural asthma in children, bandages and dressings, child abuse, thalassemia research on home health care, quality improvement, empowerment, injection safety, physical activity, and oral health pyramid (in 80% of paired comparisons between groups of the worker). Conclusion: Due to the lack of significant differences between knowledge community health workers and other health team members in most comparisons of educational programs in primary health care for health professionals, it seems that university education should be done with higher qualifications for high academic degrees and if we learn more to community health workers, we can expect high performance from them.
  301 103 -
Increasing trend of pediculosis (Pediculus Humanus Capitis) in Lamerd, Farashband, and Marvdasht Cities, Southern Iran
Zahra Soltani, Davood Keshavarzi
April-June 2018, 5(2):38-42
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_36_17  
Aim: The aim of this study was to report the trend of pediculosis among people in Lamerd, Farashband, and Marvdasht cities, Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective study of patients with a definite diagnosis of Pediculus humanus capitis in 2012–2015. Information recorded for each patient included the gender, age, residence, and the season of diagnosis. Results: In Lamerd, Marvdasht, and Farashband, the total numbers of pediculosis cases were 1675, 954, and 509 cases, respectively. In those three cities, the highest number of cases was found in the year 2015 (1568 n) and lowest was in 2012 (431 n). This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In all cities, the number of females (2921 n) was higher than males (217 n) (P < 0.05). The highest prevalence of disease was seen in female children between the ages of 6–12 years (1787 n) while the lowest prevalence was seen in male children <6 years old (8 n). Considering the residence, the majority of cases in Marvdasht (549 n) and Farashband (401 n) were from urban areas, and the difference was statistically significant only in the city of Farashband. In those cities, totally, the highest and lowest number of cases was observed in the autumn and summer, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that the disease trend is increasing in recent years. Advance in socioeconomic conditions and also implementing health education programs for kids, parents, and sick people may help in controlling this disease.
  323 81 -
The effect of positive couple therapy on the happiness of mothers of exceptional children
Yadollah Ansari, Fahimeh Sanaei
April-June 2018, 5(2):43-47
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_3_18  
Background and Purpose: Happiness is one of the components of attention of the World Health Organization, which has a direct relationship with mental health and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of positive couple therapy on the happiness of mothers of children with special needs. Research hypothesis states that mothers who receive intervention will have more happiness than mothers in the control group. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental research with pre-/posttest design with control group. Among mothers of children with special needs in Mashhad, Iran, twenty participants were selected in a purposeful method and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (ten participants in each group). Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to collect the data. To analyze the data, covariance analysis was used at inferential level, and the mean and standard deviation were used at descriptive level. Results: The results indicated that the happiness of mothers of children with special needs who received the intervention was significantly increased. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that couple therapy with a positive attitude is effective in increasing the happiness of mothers of children with special needs in Mashhad city, Iran.
  323 81 -
The effect of active and passive recovery on creatine kinase and C-reactive protein after an exercise session in football players
Mohammad Saeed Mostafavi Darani, Bahram Abedi, Hoseyn Fatolahi
January-March 2018, 5(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_31_17  
Aims: One of the important issues in the context of exercise physiology is apply the best recovery methods completely after intense physical activities. Recovery methods will decrease the risk of muscle damage and subsequent inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the recovery procedures on changes of creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) after an exercise session simulated in professional football players. Methods: Thirty Iran's Azadegan League football players were participated in this research (age: 22.4 ± 2.38, height: 179.1 ± 2.63 cm, weight: 68.5 ± 4.82 kg, body mass index: 21.5 ± 2.10 kg/m2). After exercise protocol, simulation team randomly divided the participants into three groups (n = 10) under an active recovery on land, floating in the cold water (10°C), and passive recovery for 12 min. The levels of serum CK and CRP were collected immediately, 24 h, and 48 h after the exercise protocol. Findings: The results showed a significant decrease in CK and CRP after training in cold-water immersion method comparing to the other methods (P < 0.05). In addition, the level of CRP was significantly less than passive recovery 48 h postexercise recovery (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that if recovery in cold water was used immediately after exercise, much better results are obtained in future periods. This means that immersion method in cold water probably leads to decreased signs of muscle soreness and inflammatory responses in male football players.
  300 79 -
Impact of multimodal preoperative preparation program on parental anxiety
Priya Reshma Aranha, Larissa Martha Sams, Prakash Saldanha
January-March 2018, 5(1):6-10
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_24_17  
Background: Hospitalization and surgery are stressful experiences for children and their parents. Therefore, preoperative preparation of parents becomes essential. Objective: The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of multimodal preoperative preparation program (MPPP) on parental anxiety, to find the association of parental anxiety with the selected demographic variables of parents, and to measure the satisfaction of parents regarding the preparation of children for surgery. Materials and Methods: A quasiexperimental study was conducted in a selected multispecialty hospital. Using the purposive sampling technique, a total of 110 parents of children in the age group 8–12 years were assigned to control (n = 55) and intervention (n = 55) groups, respectively. The MPPP was administered to intervention group. The parents in the control group received the routine preoperative care. Parental anxiety was assessed on admission before shifting the child to operation theater 6 h, 12 h, and 48 h after surgery whereas the parental satisfaction was measured at 48 h after surgery. Results: The mean scores of parental anxiety were significantly lower in the intervention group than that of control group (P < 0.05). Parents in the intervention group had significantly higher satisfaction level than that of control group (P < 0.05). The study did not find any significant association between the parental anxiety and selected demographic variables of parents. Conclusion: The MPPP is effective in reducing parental anxiety and can be effectively used in pediatric surgical units to prepare the parents for their child's surgery.
  299 64 -
Modeling the consequences of accidents during the process of transferring waste thinner from the paint shop of an automotive industry using aloha software
Masoud Allahyari Mehrabani, Samira Ghiyasi
July-September 2018, 5(3):55-61
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_8_18  
Aims: During the past decade, the application of engineering and managerial techniques for designing a variety of qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods and modeling the consequences of accidents have had a great contribution to the promotion of safety in the industrial systems. The present study was conducted to identify and prioritize safety risks in one of the automotive industries. Risk management of the operation of transferring waste thinner from the paint shop represents a critical issue owing to special safety. Materials and Methods: One of the most important theories for the modeling of events is the bowtie analyzing method. Bowtie is a qualitative analyzing method which incorporates managerial system techniques and provides a highly accurate analysis in the form of fault and event trees. In the present study, the process of risk identification and management was carried out using the Bowtie analyzing method and the obtained results were applied to the structure of a bowtie graph and the consequence was modeled using ALOHA software. Results: In the study, the operation of transferring waste thinner from the paint shop of an automotive industry was examined. Possible safety risks that may happen during the loading and unloading operations of the waste thinners were detected using bowtie analyzing method and the modeling of fire at chemical tanker carrying thinner and also the modeling of BLEVE phenomenon was conducted. The results represent that the area, in which employees are stationed is at very high risk that in the event of a possible fire, the personnel will be quickly caught in fireballs caused by the burning of thinner. Conclusion: According to the results, it was found that one of the administrative units is positioned inappropriately and incorrectly in the vicinity of thinner loading station that in the case of nondisplacement of the mentioned unit and the incident of fire or explosion in the place of loading and unloading of thinner, undoubtedly there would be fire at the mentioned administrative unit.
  280 79 -
Attitude of staff of Kashan university of medical sciences concerning their annual performance
Seyed Ahmad Hosseini Golafshani, Abbas Ansaritabar, Gholamreza Hoseindoost, Mahmood Atharizadeh
April-June 2018, 5(2):48-53
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_1_18  
Background: Performance assessment in organizations can lead to healthy relationships in the workplace, and it also pays grounds for intellectual growth and improvement of staff performance. This study examines the attitudes of Staff of Kashan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services about their annual performance. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 714 staff were randomly selected. The data of this study were collected by a questionnaire, whose validity and credit were tested. Then, in two stages, samples of 52 and 56 persons were taken and by two-half method and calculating the homogeneity coefficient and the Cronbach's coefficient alpha and Kuder-Richardson coefficients in the second step get to the Cronbach's coefficient alpha 93% that final validity was acceptable. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. (Chicago, SPSS Inc.). Results: The results of this study showed that the mean and standard deviation of age of the employees were 37.16 ± 7.1 years and their working history was 12.4 ± 7.7 years. A total of 256 participants (35.8%) considered the current evaluation as inappropriate or completely inappropriate performance assessment, 303 participants (42.4%) almost appropriate, 155 participants (21.7%) suitable or perfectly suitable. About 47.9% of participants rated the best period of evaluation yearly, and 552 participants (77.3%) of the statistical society were considered assessment in the presence of the employee appropriate. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the attitude of more than 50% of employees was positive about the annual performance assessment.
  252 78 -
Investigation on the relationship between mental workload and musculoskeletal disorders among nursing staff
Yousef Mahmoudifar, Bayaneh Seyedamini
January-March 2018, 5(1):16-20
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_33_17  
Aims: High prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts between nursing staff. High level of workload is considered as a serious problem and identified as a stressor in the nursing. This study intends to recognize the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload in nursing personnel reside at southern part of West Azerbaijan province Iran in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 100 nurses working in West Azerbaijan hospitals have been randomly selected. Nordic and National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index workload questionnaires have been simultaneously utilized as data collection tools. Data analysis has also carried out using SPSS, variance analysis tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Results suggest that the most frequent complaints of musculoskeletal problems are associated to the back area. Investigation on sextet scales of mental workload indicates that each of the six scales of workload was at the high-risk level and the average of total workload was 72.45 ± 19.45 which confirms a high-risk level. Pearson's correlation coefficient also indicates mental workload elements have a significant relationship with musculoskeletal disorders (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest there is a relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload and the majority of personnel had mental workload with high-risk level. The best way of management planning to mitigate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders arising of mental workload is, therefore, managing-controlling approach such as staff training, job rotation, and time management.
  244 74 -
Sleep quality and related factors among the nurses of the Hospital of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Zahra Sepehrmanesh, Gholamabbas Mousavi, Hamidreza Saberi, Rezvan Saei
January-March 2017, 4(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_8_17  
Aim: Sleep and rest are the essential physiological needs of human. Nurses are at risk of developing sleep problems than others because of having various shift work. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sleep quality and related factors in the nurses. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 nurses were selected randomly from Shahid Beheshti Educational Hospital of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, 2016. Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index and demographic questionnaire were used for the detection of sleep quality. Results: The mean age of cases was 51.31 years, and most of them (73%) were female. The majority of them had rotating shift work and worked over 150 h per month. 95.5% (191 cases) of them had poor sleep quality. The mean total score of sleep quality in females was higher than males (P = 0.04). The nurses with rotating shift work had higher mean total score of sleep quality than nurses with fixed shift work. Nurses with over 150 h per month had more problems in daily function than others (P = 0.04). Conclusion: These results present that the majority of the nurses had poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality could be affect function, mental and physical health, and secondary effect delivery service to patients. Therefore, attention to this issue and strategies for improved sleep quality is necessary.
  223 41 -
Application of dissolved air flotation process for industrial sludge thickening: A laboratory-scale study
Ali Atamaleki, Gholamreza Mostafaii, Mohammad Bagher Miranzadeh, Hossein Akbari, Leila Iranshahi, Atieh Salem
January-March 2017, 4(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_11_17  
Aims: Increasing population density in cities has led to an increase in industrial and municipal wastewater sludge generation volume. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) can widely be used for water and wastewater treatment. The aim of our study is to evaluate some DAF design parameters on biological sludge thickening which generated from an industrial wastewater treatment plant. Materials and Methods: This experimental research had been carried out as a laboratory-scale study on DAF process to thickening of the biological sludge. The required amount of sludge was taken once from the Amikabir industrial town wastewater treatment plant in Kashan, Iran. After determination of optimal recycling rate, pH, and coagulant dose, effects of pressure (3, 5, and 7 atm), flotation time (5 and 10 min), and coagulant addition were evaluated on DAF process efficiency. Results: According to this investigation results, the optimal pH and dose of coagulant were obtained 7.5 and 200 mg/L, respectively. Maximum process efficiency for the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDSs), total solids (TSs), and turbidity parameters was 61.01%, 84.02%, and 97%, respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that in contrast to time, coagulant addition and pressure have significant effect on DAF process. Conclusion: DAF process had suitable thickening efficiency to removal of TDS, TS, and turbidity on biological activated sludge.
  210 33 -
Study of the health condition of the hotels and lodging houses of the city of Kashan in winter 2015 and spring 2016
Davarkhah Rabbani, Rouhullah Dehghani, Nastaran Haghshenas, Maryam Salmani, Hosein Akbari, Seyedmahdi Takhtfiroozeh
July-September 2018, 5(3):62-67
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_5_18  
Aims: The tourism industry is one of the world's top three industries with an annual growth of 4%. This research was conducted with the aim of determining the environmental health indicators of hotels and lodging houses in the city of Kashan in the winter of 2015 and the spring of 2016. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive study carried out on all hotels and guesthouses in Kashan city. The information was collected through direct referral and health visit with the environmental health expert of the health centers of Kashan. Information was gathered by in the form of completion of Article 13 of the Code of Conduct and then analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Having a medical examination card by all the staff, improvement the walls of the building at 14.3%, and improvement the ceiling in 28.6% of the hotels, the use of a depreciated bed in a hotel and a guesthouse, the lack of an appropriate ventilation in 50% of the guesthouses, the lack of attention to the provision of health cards by drivers of food-carrying vehicles was observed in more than 50% of the places. Conclusion: The health status of the hotels and inns (lodging house) of the city of Kashan is in a relatively favorable situation. Considering the many tourism attractions in Kashan and the presence of tourists, it is important to pay attention to the safety and improvement of buildings of residential centers to maintain the health and comfort of tourists and also to prevent earthquake hazards.
  171 58 -
Assessing the nosocomial infections' rate and the antibiotic resistance pattern among the patient hospitalized in beheshti hospital during 2013
Manijeh Kadkhodaei, Mohammad Reza Sharif, Mohammad Ali Saba, Gholam Abbass Mousavi
January-March 2018, 5(1):11-15
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_39_17  
Aims: Nosocomial infection is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and length of stay. Detection of infection, identify the etiology of bacterial antibiotic resistance pattern, is necessary given the widespread use of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant organisms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 288 patients admitted to the Beheshti Hospitals in Kashan based on NNIS definitions according to the state of Health and Medical education. In this study infections and antibiotic resistance symptoms were found. Data analyses were performed with Chi-square test. Results: Among the 288 patients studied, with mean out of hospital infection was 0.80%. Most cases of infection associated were pneumonia. The highest rates of infection were in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with 51.7%. Nosocomial infection in ICU wards was associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The most common types were ventilator-associated pneumonia. Among the microorganisms, negative Gram was seen more. The common pathogens were including Acinetobacter, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella. Antimicrobial resistance was generally increasing and had emerged from selective pressure from antibiotic use and transmission through health staff. Conclusion: This study showed a correlation between antibiotic use and resistance of microorganisms is significant. Hence, it seems that reducing aggressive acts and conduct hygiene education and monitoring act of antibiotics is necessary to prevent antibiotic resistance.
  174 54 -
Study of the mediation role of acceptance and mindfulness in relation between behavioral inhibition/activation system sensitivity and emotional distress
Rozna Asgharnezhad, Reza Abdi
July-September 2018, 5(3):76-81
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_20_18  
Context: Emotional disturbances are caused by various factors that include two general biological and cognitive components. Understanding the factors affecting emotional disturbances is important in improving the quality of life of individuals. Aims: This study was aimed to determine the mediation role of acceptance and mindfulness in relation between behavioral inhibition/activation system sensitivity and emotional distress of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch. Settings and Design: The research method of the study was descriptive form type of correlational. Subjects and Methods: The statistical population of the study included all students of the Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch. Among them, 380 participants (190 females and 190 males) were selected through cluster random sampling. To collect the data, Carver and White's (1994) behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales, Bond et al. 's (2007) second version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, and Bauer et al.'s (2006) five-facet mindfulness questionnaire and depression, anxiety, and stress scale, were used. Statistical Analysis Used: To analyze the data, the Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression were used. Results: The findings indicated that behavioral inhibition/activation systems, acceptance, and mindfulness could significantly predict about 45% of depression variance, 53% of anxiety variance, and 41% of stress variance of emotional distress. Conclusions: According to the findings, it could be concluded that stress, anxiety, and depression as emotional distress are the result of the behavioral inhibition/activation systems that they are the result of the acceptance and mindfulness effect. In fact, the acceptance and mindfulness have the mediation role in relation between behavioral inhibition/activation system sensitivity and emotional distress. In order to regulate emotions, it should be pay attention to behavioral inhibition/activation systems, acceptance, and mindfulness.
  174 50 -
Epidemiological and clinical study on the cutaneous leishmaniasis in Aran and Bidgol, center of Iran
Sima Rasti, Mahdi Delavari, Tayebeh Sadat Tekieh Arani, Seyed Gholam Abbas Mousavi
July-September 2018, 5(3):72-75
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_26_18  
Aims: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a skin infection that causes various forms of ulcers and also remains scars even after treatment. This disease is prevalent in many countries of Middle East including Iran. Since determining the species of the parasite is important for prevention and control programs, this study was conducted to identify Leishmania species in Aran and Bidgol, Isfahan province, center of Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 112 CL suspected patients who referred to health centers of Aran and Bidgol. Serosity of the wound was collected, and amastigote form was detected by microscopic method. After extraction of DNA from serosity, kDNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify Leishmania species. Results: Fifty-four of all suspected CL samples (48.2%) were positive microscopically, while 55 (49.1%) were positive using kDNA-PCR. The results of PCR revealed that 51 isolates (92.7%) were Leishmania major and 4 (7.3%) Leishmania tropica, respectively. The most lesion form caused by L. major was papular or volcanic-like, while all of wounds caused by L. tropica were papular/nodular forms. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the predominant species was L. major and zoonotic CL is more prevalent in this region.
  157 59 -
Salinity variation in Kashan plain groundwater resources
Davarkhah Rabbani, Mohammad Hadi Fattahi, Nima Mazroii, Rouhullah Dehghani
July-September 2018, 5(3):68-71
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_6_18  
Aims: The trend of withdrawal from groundwater resources in Kashan plain has been increased during the recent 40 years. For example, the number of deep wells has been increased from 67 in 1965 to 927 in 2003. As a result, the well discharges and water quality have been diminishing. Hence, this research was aimed to study the salinity variation modeling in Kashan plain groundwater resource. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research was done based on recorded data for some wells in Kashan plain. First, the data from 112 wells were considered then, 16 wells with more complete data were selected for analysis. Total dissolved solids (TDSs) were considered as the salinity index. Results: The results showed that, in Kashan plain, the mean of salinity has been increased from 1190 mg/L to more than 1400 mg/L during 7 years. Although the salinity has been somewhat less after each annual precipitation, the trend is upward. Minimum and maximum of TDS were identified taken samples from wells number 27 and 47, respectively. Maximum rate of salinity was found in wells number 53 and 55, while the minimum was related to well number 54. Conclusions: The groundwater salinity in Kashan plain has an upward trend. The groundwater salinity can be related to some major factors such as distance from Salt Lake, less annual precipitation, and more withdrawal from the aquifer in the recent decades. Since the later can be managed withdrawal, especially for agricultural activities have to be minimized as the most effective way for prevention of the groundwater quality degradation.
  153 55 -
Comparing the effect of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercise program on the level of resistin and high reactive protein C of overweight and obese women
Zeynab Shafiee, Gholamreza Sharifi
January-March 2017, 4(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_4_17  
History and Objective: Obesity is one of the health risks factors, and aerobic exercise is one of the means to prevent and control obesity. The research was designed to compare methods of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercises on resistin and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum level of overweight and obese women. Research Methodology: In this semi-experimental research, 36 voluntary overweight or obese women were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 12) of aerobic, resistance, and concurrent exercise programs. The training included 8 weeks of exercise performed with 55%–75% of 1-repetition maximum weight lifting. The aerobic exercise was performed at 55%–75% of maximum oxygen consumption and concurrent training included both programs for 3 days/week. The resistin and CRP serum level of the participant was measured 48 h before the start and again 48 h after the termination of the exercise protocol. The statistical analysis was performed on data using SPSS 22.0 (Chicago, USA). One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test was employed to test the hypothesis at significance level set to 0.05. Results: The result indicated that exercise program significantly decreased CRP level of blood serum (P < 0.05) in all exercise groups. Such effect was present in aerobic and concurrent exercise group but not on the resistance group for resistin level (P > 0.05). Discussion: Aerobic exercise regardless of types has a beneficiary effect on CPR, but resistin level needs different types of exercise to change in overweight and obese women. Conclusion: Some aerobic exercises are beneficiary for overweight and obese women health.
  166 41 -
Discovery of the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts: Qualitative study
Fahimeh Namdarpour, Maryam Fatehizade, Fatemeh Bahrami, Rahmatollah Mohammadi Fesharaki
October-December 2017, 4(4):79-83
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_27_17  
Background and Objectives: Rumination is the predisposing and continuing factor of depression. Since women are prone to rumination, the purpose of this study was to discover the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on a qualitative method basis, and target society was composed of women with marital conflicts and rumination. The sample was selected from among those referring to Isfahan counseling centers and was statured with 15 persons through purposeful sampling method. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews and data analysis was performed based on thematic analysis. Results: Five main categories were obtained from data analysis: root cause analysis, feeling incompetence, remembrance of bitter memories, negative emotions, and hesitation in continuation of couple relationship. Conclusion: The findings indicate that when women with marital conflicts become ruminant, the course of rumination is so that it could harm continuation of their couple relationship. Therefore, to reduce this damage, interventions are required to intervene effectively in this process.
  181 26 -
Ergonomic relationship during work in nursing staff of intensive care unit with operating room
Yousef Mahmoudifar, Bayaneh Seyedamini
April-June 2017, 4(2):42-47
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_16_17  
Background and Objectives: High prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, especially in jobs such as nursing which covers tasks like patients' repositioning, has attracted great attentions from occupational healthcare experts to necessitate the knowledge of ergonomic science. Therefore, this study was performed aiming at ergonomic relationship during work in nursing staff of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with operating room. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study (cohort), fifty personnel of ICU staff and fifty of operating room staff were selected through a census method and were assessed using tools such as Nordic questionnaire and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) standards in terms of body posture ergonomics. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software and Chi-Square test after collection. Results: The most complaints were from the operating room group (68%) and ICU staff (60%) for the lumbar musculoskeletal system. There was a significant relationship between the total REBA scores of body, legs, neck, arm, force status, load fitting with hands and static or dynamic activities in the operating room and ICU staff groups (P < 0.05). In operating room and ICU groups, most subjects obtained score 11–15 and very high-risk level. Conclusion: Nurses working at operating room and ICU ward are subjected to high-risk levels and occupational injuries which is dramatically resulted from inappropriate body posture or particular conditions of their works. As a result, taking corrective actions along with planning and identifying ways will help prohibiting the prevalence of disorders in the future.
  164 41 -
Antibacterial activity of different extracts of prawn shell (Macrobrachium nipponense) against human bacterial pathogens
Katayoon Karimzadeh, Masoumeh Pormehr
January-March 2017, 4(1):13-16
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_6_17  
Aims: Bioactive compounds existing in crustacean shells have the potential to inhibit the growth of some pathogenic microorganism. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different extracts of prawn shells (Macrobrachium nipponense) on some human pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Sampling (prawn) was conducted in summer 2014 from Anzali wetland in southern coast of Caspian Sea. Then, the hydroalcoholic, methanolic, and acetone extracts of prawn shells were applied for this purpose. Two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli) were used as test organisms. The antibacterial activity was determined by paper disk diffusion. Results: The prawn shell extracts showed activity against pathogenic bacteria. The highest antibacterial activities were measured in B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae with the zone of inhibition being 12.12 ± 0.32 mm, 12.51 ± 0.14 mm, and 12.35 ± 0.27 mm, respectively. Among all the strains, S. aureus exhibits a significant zone of inhibition against all extracts (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that different prawn shell extracts, particularly hydroalcoholic, have bactericidal effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae species.
  154 40 -
Assessment of physical, psychological, social, and environmental health domains of quality of life in female students living in dormitories of Qom University of Medical Sciences
Elaheh Rahiminia, Hoorieh Rahiminia, Gholamreza Sharifirad
October-December 2017, 4(4):93-96
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_18_17  
Aims: Considering significant number of students, especially female students consisting young stratum of the society, there is the increased possibility of mental damages and the direct effect it can have on their quality of life (QOL). The present study aimed to investigate the QOL in female students living in dormitories of the University of Medical Sciences in Qom University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2016 on 300 students of the Qom University of Medical Sciences selected using quota sampling. Data gathering tool was the World Health Organization QOL-BREF questionnaire containing 26 items. Statistical data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics of SPSS software. Results: In general, the mean score of students in the four domains of QOL was respectively related to physical health (14.42 ± 2.42), social health (13.30 ± 3.33), environmental health (13.11 ± 2.95), and psychological health (13 ± 2.81), and also, there was a significant relationship between QOL and age (P < 0.0001), discipline (P < 0.04), economic status (P < 0.0001), and interest in discipline (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that the lowest area of QOL was associated with psychological health; therefore, to increase the QOL in this dimension; the periodical evaluation of the mental health is recommended. Appropriate training to create psychological adjustment in student dormitories can also improve the QOL.
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Alcohol abuse in Iranian adolescents: A mediational model of parental monitoring and affiliation with deviant peers
Sajad Aminimanesh, Javad Khodadadi Sangdeh, Khodabakhsh Ahmadi, Alimohammad Nazari, Mostafa Khanzade
April-June 2017, 4(2):36-41
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_15_17  
Aims: This study aimed to determine the attitudes toward alcohol abuse among students in Tehran and to develop and test a model of the relationships among parental monitoring and affiliation with deviant peers as they predict youth alcohol abuse. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1266 adolescents were recruited from high schools in Tehran and three scales of alcohol abuse, parental monitoring, and adolescent affiliation with deviant peers were completed for them. Data were analyzed using independent sample t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and structural equations modeling. Results: The results of this study indicated that 7.4% of individuals had a positive attitude toward alcohol abuse. The percentage of positive attitude among males was nearly 2 times more than females. The study model was confirmed and explained 0.42 of attitudes toward alcohol abuse variance. Moreover, affiliation with deviant peers had a mediating role in the relationship between Parental Monitoring and attitude toward alcohol abuse. Conclusion: According to the results, parental monitoring and affiliation with deviant peers could explain the alcohol abuse among adolescents. Therefore, it is suggested to include these factors in prevention programs aimed at reducing alcohol abuse.
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Study of electrochemical process effect on detergent removal from polluted water and fish bioassay test of the effluent
Davarkhah Rabbani, Gholam Reza Mostafaii, Vahid Eskandari, Rouhollah Dehghani, Fatemeh Atoof
July-September 2017, 4(3):53-57
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_10_17  
Aims: Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is an anionic surfactant which is widely used in household and industrial detergents usage, and after use, it usually finds a way to the wastewater treatment systems. Conventional treatment is not recognized as an efficient method due to the long residence time and enlarged cost. Hence, advanced oxidation processes including electrochemical techniques are important. In this paper, electrochemical degradation of a synthetic solution of LAS with initial concentration 200 ppm has been investigated. Methods: The experiment was performed using eight stainless steel electrodes as cathode and anode with a monopolar arrangement. The effects of current intensity and density were studied as operational parameters on detergent removal efficiency. Results: The maximum removal efficiency 94% was achieved at current intensity equal to 300 mA and current density 6 mA/cm2. The energy consumption was calculated 2.7 ± 0.1 WH/g. The bioassay test showed that only under optimum conditions, 80% of fish was survived until 4 days since the end of the process and the rest were died immediately. All ten fish leaved in unpolluted were survived until 4 days monitoring. Conclusion: The results showed that, by reducing the current density, removal efficiency increases it was true for all current intensities.
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Effect of occupational noise-induced sleep disturbance on worker's health
Milad Abbasi, Mohammad Reza Monnazzam, Seyed Abolfaazl Zakerian, Ahmad Mehri, Maryam Mohammadian Khoshnoud, Arsalan Yousefzadeh
July-September 2017, 4(3):62-67
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_21_17  
Aims: In addition to the noise, sleep disturbance (SD) as an outcome of the exposure to the wind turbine noises (WTNs) can adversely affect general health. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SD induced from WTNs on general health indicators. Materials and Methods: A total number of fifty tree workers from Manjil wind farm voluntarily participated in this study. Based on the job similarity and vicinity to the sound sources, workers were classified into three occupational groups including repairman, security, and official staff. Individual's health and sleep status were gathered using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scales, respectively. Noise was measured based on ISO 9612. ANOVA, Chi-square, and linear and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis in the SPSS 20 software environment. Results: The mean values of 8-h equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (LAeq, 8 h) among whole workers was 71 ± 10 dB (A). The averages of somatic symptom, anxiety insomnia, social dysfunction, depression, and general health among the participants were 5 ± 2.44, 7 ± 2.35, 11 ± 2.65, 2 ± 1.54, 22 ± 6.53, and 7.3 ± 3.1, respectively. According to the results, SD and noise exposure had an adverse health effect on physical symptoms, depression, and overall general health of participants. Moreover, SD and work experience were effective factors on anxiety-insomnia. SD had greatest effect on general health when all variables are controlled, so that general health will increase by 2.42 units for each unit increase of SD. Conclusion: We found that in addition to the sound effect, noise-induced SD also affects worker's health and strengthen sound effects on human well-being.
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The effect of education based on the health promotion model on awareness about menopause among healthcare volunteers in Kashan
Monika Motaghi, Leila Mohandes Mojarrad, Maryam Nadjafi, Maryam Omidi
April-June 2017, 4(2):31-35
DOI:10.4103/iahs.iahs_13_17  
Background and Objectives: Menopause, the beginning of a new era in the life of a woman, like all the other stages of life can create some problems, which threaten the women's health. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of education on the awareness of female health volunteers about menopause in the city of Kashan based on the health promotion model in 2016. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 280 female health volunteers in the cities of Kashan and Aran Bidgol were selected by simple random sampling in 2016. The health volunteers' knowledge of menopause was compared before and 6 months after the training. The theoretical framework used in this study was the structures of Pender's health promotion model. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using correlation tests and regression analysis with the SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the mean age of the participants was 30.05 ± 5.17 years (age range, 18–43). The mean score of knowledge before training was 7.6 ± 3.75 and after the intervention was 7.81 ± 6.4, which was increased. There was a significant difference between the mean scores of knowledge before and after the training (P < 0.001 and t = 33.5). The results showed a significant difference in the mean scores of the health promotion model before and after the training (P = 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed the positive impact of education based on the health promotion model on the knowledge of the volunteers about menopause. It is recommended that some training and research programs be performed to select the optimal training methods for volunteers, and strengthen their scientific knowledge and empower them. Given that the health volunteers have a close relationship with the community, training them can change the health behaviors, reduce the cost of healthcare, and improve the health status of the community.
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