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The effect of active and passive recovery on creatine kinase and C-reactive protein after an exercise session in football players
Mohammad Saeed Mostafavi Darani, Bahram Abedi, Hoseyn Fatolahi
January-March 2018, 5(1):1-5
Aims: One of the important issues in the context of exercise physiology is apply the best recovery methods completely after intense physical activities. Recovery methods will decrease the risk of muscle damage and subsequent inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the recovery procedures on changes of creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) after an exercise session simulated in professional football players. Methods: Thirty Iran's Azadegan League football players were participated in this research (age: 22.4 ± 2.38, height: 179.1 ± 2.63 cm, weight: 68.5 ± 4.82 kg, body mass index: 21.5 ± 2.10 kg/m2). After exercise protocol, simulation team randomly divided the participants into three groups (n = 10) under an active recovery on land, floating in the cold water (10°C), and passive recovery for 12 min. The levels of serum CK and CRP were collected immediately, 24 h, and 48 h after the exercise protocol. Findings: The results showed a significant decrease in CK and CRP after training in cold-water immersion method comparing to the other methods (P < 0.05). In addition, the level of CRP was significantly less than passive recovery 48 h postexercise recovery (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that if recovery in cold water was used immediately after exercise, much better results are obtained in future periods. This means that immersion method in cold water probably leads to decreased signs of muscle soreness and inflammatory responses in male football players.
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Impact of multimodal preoperative preparation program on parental anxiety
Priya Reshma Aranha, Larissa Martha Sams, Prakash Saldanha
January-March 2018, 5(1):6-10
Background: Hospitalization and surgery are stressful experiences for children and their parents. Therefore, preoperative preparation of parents becomes essential. Objective: The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of multimodal preoperative preparation program (MPPP) on parental anxiety, to find the association of parental anxiety with the selected demographic variables of parents, and to measure the satisfaction of parents regarding the preparation of children for surgery. Materials and Methods: A quasiexperimental study was conducted in a selected multispecialty hospital. Using the purposive sampling technique, a total of 110 parents of children in the age group 8–12 years were assigned to control (n = 55) and intervention (n = 55) groups, respectively. The MPPP was administered to intervention group. The parents in the control group received the routine preoperative care. Parental anxiety was assessed on admission before shifting the child to operation theater 6 h, 12 h, and 48 h after surgery whereas the parental satisfaction was measured at 48 h after surgery. Results: The mean scores of parental anxiety were significantly lower in the intervention group than that of control group (P < 0.05). Parents in the intervention group had significantly higher satisfaction level than that of control group (P < 0.05). The study did not find any significant association between the parental anxiety and selected demographic variables of parents. Conclusion: The MPPP is effective in reducing parental anxiety and can be effectively used in pediatric surgical units to prepare the parents for their child's surgery.
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Assessing the nosocomial infections' rate and the antibiotic resistance pattern among the patient hospitalized in beheshti hospital during 2013
Manijeh Kadkhodaei, Mohammad Reza Sharif, Mohammad Ali Saba, Gholam Abbass Mousavi
January-March 2018, 5(1):11-15
Aims: Nosocomial infection is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and length of stay. Detection of infection, identify the etiology of bacterial antibiotic resistance pattern, is necessary given the widespread use of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant organisms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 288 patients admitted to the Beheshti Hospitals in Kashan based on NNIS definitions according to the state of Health and Medical education. In this study infections and antibiotic resistance symptoms were found. Data analyses were performed with Chi-square test. Results: Among the 288 patients studied, with mean out of hospital infection was 0.80%. Most cases of infection associated were pneumonia. The highest rates of infection were in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with 51.7%. Nosocomial infection in ICU wards was associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The most common types were ventilator-associated pneumonia. Among the microorganisms, negative Gram was seen more. The common pathogens were including Acinetobacter, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella. Antimicrobial resistance was generally increasing and had emerged from selective pressure from antibiotic use and transmission through health staff. Conclusion: This study showed a correlation between antibiotic use and resistance of microorganisms is significant. Hence, it seems that reducing aggressive acts and conduct hygiene education and monitoring act of antibiotics is necessary to prevent antibiotic resistance.
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Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in public hospital in Khoy, Northwest of Iran, 2015–2017
Ebrahim Kazemi, Hossein Hooshyar, Abdolla Khorrami, Farhad Gharagozlou
April-June 2017, 4(2):27-30
Aims: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite and congenital transmission, abortion, and prenatal mortality are major problems of this parasite. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection in the pregnant women, referring to Khoy Public Hospital, Iran, during 2015–2017. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 3 ml of venous blood were taken from 1060 pregnant women and centrifuged; the collected sera were kept in a freezer at -20°C until testing. Then, samples were examined for the presence of IgG and IgM Toxoplasma antibodies using Autobio ELISA kit according to manufacturer's instructions. Data analysis was done using Chi-square test and SPSS-10 software. Results: Among 1060 serum samples of pregnant women, 38.2% were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies. IgG and IgM titers of antibodies to T. gondii were positive in 36.6% and 1.2% of women, respectively. The incidence in women older than 30 years was 49.3%. The positive rate of IgG of pregnant women increased with age (P < 0.05). In women who were living in the village, the prevalence was 45.5% and in urban women, it was 21.5%; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of T. gondii infection in this study showed that pregnant women infected with this parasite at an early age and it is important for pregnant women to prevent irreversible complications in neonates.
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Unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy masquerading as malignant neoplasm: Actinomycosis – The Culprit
Pinki Pandey, Megha Ralli, Savita Agarwal, Ranjan Agarwal
January-March 2018, 5(1):21-23
Actinomycosis is an infrequent bacterial infection encountered nowadays, caused by anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium of Actinomyces species. We report an unusual case of a unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy in a 40-year-old male, caused by actinomycosis masquerading as malignant tumor. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of actinomycosis causing unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy have previously been published. Since this anaerobic organism is difficult to culture, the diagnosis is made by observing its associated sulfur granules in the biopsy specimens. Still, actinomycosis represents an important entity in today's context as it is the great masquerader of the head-and-neck lesions because of its myriad presentation that may mimic other common diseases, the difficulties involved in its diagnosis, and the long course of treatment mandatory to eradicate the disease.
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Investigation on the relationship between mental workload and musculoskeletal disorders among nursing staff
Yousef Mahmoudifar, Bayaneh Seyedamini
January-March 2018, 5(1):16-20
Aims: High prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts between nursing staff. High level of workload is considered as a serious problem and identified as a stressor in the nursing. This study intends to recognize the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload in nursing personnel reside at southern part of West Azerbaijan province Iran in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 100 nurses working in West Azerbaijan hospitals have been randomly selected. Nordic and National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index workload questionnaires have been simultaneously utilized as data collection tools. Data analysis has also carried out using SPSS, variance analysis tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Results suggest that the most frequent complaints of musculoskeletal problems are associated to the back area. Investigation on sextet scales of mental workload indicates that each of the six scales of workload was at the high-risk level and the average of total workload was 72.45 ± 19.45 which confirms a high-risk level. Pearson's correlation coefficient also indicates mental workload elements have a significant relationship with musculoskeletal disorders (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest there is a relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload and the majority of personnel had mental workload with high-risk level. The best way of management planning to mitigate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders arising of mental workload is, therefore, managing-controlling approach such as staff training, job rotation, and time management.
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Comparing the effect of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercise program on the level of resistin and high reactive protein C of overweight and obese women
Zeynab Shafiee, Gholamreza Sharifi
January-March 2017, 4(1):1-6
History and Objective: Obesity is one of the health risks factors, and aerobic exercise is one of the means to prevent and control obesity. The research was designed to compare methods of resistance, aerobic, and concurrent exercises on resistin and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum level of overweight and obese women. Research Methodology: In this semi-experimental research, 36 voluntary overweight or obese women were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 12) of aerobic, resistance, and concurrent exercise programs. The training included 8 weeks of exercise performed with 55%–75% of 1-repetition maximum weight lifting. The aerobic exercise was performed at 55%–75% of maximum oxygen consumption and concurrent training included both programs for 3 days/week. The resistin and CRP serum level of the participant was measured 48 h before the start and again 48 h after the termination of the exercise protocol. The statistical analysis was performed on data using SPSS 22.0 (Chicago, USA). One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test was employed to test the hypothesis at significance level set to 0.05. Results: The result indicated that exercise program significantly decreased CRP level of blood serum (P < 0.05) in all exercise groups. Such effect was present in aerobic and concurrent exercise group but not on the resistance group for resistin level (P > 0.05). Discussion: Aerobic exercise regardless of types has a beneficiary effect on CPR, but resistin level needs different types of exercise to change in overweight and obese women. Conclusion: Some aerobic exercises are beneficiary for overweight and obese women health.
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Application of dissolved air flotation process for industrial sludge thickening: A laboratory-scale study
Ali Atamaleki, Gholamreza Mostafaii, Mohammad Bagher Miranzadeh, Hossein Akbari, Leila Iranshahi, Atieh Salem
January-March 2017, 4(1):22-26
Aims: Increasing population density in cities has led to an increase in industrial and municipal wastewater sludge generation volume. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) can widely be used for water and wastewater treatment. The aim of our study is to evaluate some DAF design parameters on biological sludge thickening which generated from an industrial wastewater treatment plant. Materials and Methods: This experimental research had been carried out as a laboratory-scale study on DAF process to thickening of the biological sludge. The required amount of sludge was taken once from the Amikabir industrial town wastewater treatment plant in Kashan, Iran. After determination of optimal recycling rate, pH, and coagulant dose, effects of pressure (3, 5, and 7 atm), flotation time (5 and 10 min), and coagulant addition were evaluated on DAF process efficiency. Results: According to this investigation results, the optimal pH and dose of coagulant were obtained 7.5 and 200 mg/L, respectively. Maximum process efficiency for the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDSs), total solids (TSs), and turbidity parameters was 61.01%, 84.02%, and 97%, respectively. Furthermore, the results showed that in contrast to time, coagulant addition and pressure have significant effect on DAF process. Conclusion: DAF process had suitable thickening efficiency to removal of TDS, TS, and turbidity on biological activated sludge.
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The effect of education based on the health promotion model on awareness about menopause among healthcare volunteers in Kashan
Monika Motaghi, Leila Mohandes Mojarrad, Maryam Nadjafi, Maryam Omidi
April-June 2017, 4(2):31-35
Background and Objectives: Menopause, the beginning of a new era in the life of a woman, like all the other stages of life can create some problems, which threaten the women's health. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of education on the awareness of female health volunteers about menopause in the city of Kashan based on the health promotion model in 2016. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 280 female health volunteers in the cities of Kashan and Aran Bidgol were selected by simple random sampling in 2016. The health volunteers' knowledge of menopause was compared before and 6 months after the training. The theoretical framework used in this study was the structures of Pender's health promotion model. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed using correlation tests and regression analysis with the SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the mean age of the participants was 30.05 ± 5.17 years (age range, 18–43). The mean score of knowledge before training was 7.6 ± 3.75 and after the intervention was 7.81 ± 6.4, which was increased. There was a significant difference between the mean scores of knowledge before and after the training (P < 0.001 and t = 33.5). The results showed a significant difference in the mean scores of the health promotion model before and after the training (P = 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed the positive impact of education based on the health promotion model on the knowledge of the volunteers about menopause. It is recommended that some training and research programs be performed to select the optimal training methods for volunteers, and strengthen their scientific knowledge and empower them. Given that the health volunteers have a close relationship with the community, training them can change the health behaviors, reduce the cost of healthcare, and improve the health status of the community.
  10 6 -
Investigating the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and quality of work life in nursing staff
Yousef Mahmoudifar, Bayaneh Seyedamini
October-December 2017, 4(4):97-100
Aims: The high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders caused by work is a common problem in nurses. The quality of life is effective, job satisfaction, and everyday life of nurses. The study was conducted with the aim of determining the relationship of musculoskeletal disorders and the dimensions of the quality of nursing life in the hospitals in Southern regions of West Azarbaijan in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 100 nursing staff working in southern regions of West Azarbaijan hospitals was chosen randomly. The data gathering tool was a two-part tool using a Nordic questionnaire and a quality of life questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that the most musculoskeletal disorders in the nursing staff were in the lumbar (50%). In addition, individual factors such as age, work history, type of working system, body mass index, and sex are effective in the increase of musculoskeletal disorders (P < 0.05). The results of quality of life indicators showed that psychological problems with mean and standard deviation (32.3 ± 14.1) had the lowest and physical performance (58.2 ± 17.5) had the highest amount and dimensions and components of work-life quality have significant relationship with musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusion: Considering that there is a relationship between skeletal muscle-muscle disorders and living quality of life, nursing managers should establish a correct relationship with the staff and provide a suitable environment to reduce physical and psychological stresses caused by work and increase the quality of working life.
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Ergonomic relationship during work in nursing staff of intensive care unit with operating room
Yousef Mahmoudifar, Bayaneh Seyedamini
April-June 2017, 4(2):42-47
Background and Objectives: High prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, especially in jobs such as nursing which covers tasks like patients' repositioning, has attracted great attentions from occupational healthcare experts to necessitate the knowledge of ergonomic science. Therefore, this study was performed aiming at ergonomic relationship during work in nursing staff of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with operating room. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study (cohort), fifty personnel of ICU staff and fifty of operating room staff were selected through a census method and were assessed using tools such as Nordic questionnaire and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) standards in terms of body posture ergonomics. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software and Chi-Square test after collection. Results: The most complaints were from the operating room group (68%) and ICU staff (60%) for the lumbar musculoskeletal system. There was a significant relationship between the total REBA scores of body, legs, neck, arm, force status, load fitting with hands and static or dynamic activities in the operating room and ICU staff groups (P < 0.05). In operating room and ICU groups, most subjects obtained score 11–15 and very high-risk level. Conclusion: Nurses working at operating room and ICU ward are subjected to high-risk levels and occupational injuries which is dramatically resulted from inappropriate body posture or particular conditions of their works. As a result, taking corrective actions along with planning and identifying ways will help prohibiting the prevalence of disorders in the future.
  9 5 -
Discovery of the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts: Qualitative study
Fahimeh Namdarpour, Maryam Fatehizade, Fatemeh Bahrami, Rahmatollah Mohammadi Fesharaki
October-December 2017, 4(4):79-83
Background and Objectives: Rumination is the predisposing and continuing factor of depression. Since women are prone to rumination, the purpose of this study was to discover the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on a qualitative method basis, and target society was composed of women with marital conflicts and rumination. The sample was selected from among those referring to Isfahan counseling centers and was statured with 15 persons through purposeful sampling method. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews and data analysis was performed based on thematic analysis. Results: Five main categories were obtained from data analysis: root cause analysis, feeling incompetence, remembrance of bitter memories, negative emotions, and hesitation in continuation of couple relationship. Conclusion: The findings indicate that when women with marital conflicts become ruminant, the course of rumination is so that it could harm continuation of their couple relationship. Therefore, to reduce this damage, interventions are required to intervene effectively in this process.
  9 5 -
Education services quality of Kashan Medical Science University, based on SERVQUAL model in viewpoints of students
Ebrahim Kouchaki, Monika Motaghi
October-December 2017, 4(4):84-88
Introduction: Sustainable development of higher educational systems, as a dynamic system, requires a coherent moderate growth both in qualitative and quantitative dimensions. Since students are the major clients of higher education systems and their perspectives can play a key role in the quality promotion of the services; this study has been conducted based on SERVQUAL model aiming at the assessment of educational services quality in Kashan Medical Science University in 2016. Study Methodology: A total of 212 students of Kashan Medical Science University were selected with a population of 616 subjects through random sampling, using Morgan tables for this descriptive-analytical research. Data collection tools were the standard SERVQUAL questionnaire composing of three sections of basic information and 28 items, according to Likert six-option scale for the measurement of services quality current and desired expected conditions. The difference between the average of current and desirable statuses was measured as the services gap. Descriptive deductive statistics were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: The students aged averagely 23 ± 1.8, 65% (138 subjects) were female, and 35% (74 subjects) were male. About 72% (153 subjects) were single, and 28% (59 subjects) were married. The obtained results revealed that there was a negative gap in all dimensions of quality. The results also showed that the minimum gap obtained for learning assist tools (physical and tangibility dimensions) with an amount of −0.38 and the maximum gap for guide instructor availability once needed by the students (accountability dimension) with an amount of −2.42. Total mean of perceptions and expectations measurement for the students obtained 2.28 and 3.85, respectively. Conclusion: Respecting the negative gap obtained for all dimensions of educational services quality and insufficiencies to meet the students' expectations, it is recommended to assign further resources along with appropriate management initiations, modification, and rearrangement of the services providing models to improve the quality of educational services for higher education centers all around the country.
  10 4 -
Diagnosis of clinical and laboratory findings of brucellosis in Isfahan
Fahimeh Nourbakhsh, Samaneh Borooni, Samira Barangi, Elaheh Tajbakhsh
April-June 2017, 4(2):48-51
Aims: Brucellosis is one of the important infectious factors in most areas of Iran and other developing countries. Brucellosis has different clinical manifestations and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infectious and noninfectious diseases. The aims of this study was to determine the epidemiological, clinical findings of the brucellosis in patients based on blood culture and serological tests. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 190 brucellosis patients admitted in Isfahan Hospital in 2016–2017 that were studied based on positive immunological tests such as Wright, 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples of blood were cultured (BACTEC) and incubated at 37°C for 5 days and then on Brucella agar. In addition, clinical and laboratory characteristics of brucellosis were done. The patients who had brucellosis (Coombs test ≥1/80 and 2ME ≥1/40) were selected. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Results: About 62.5% of patients were female with mean age of 37.5% years. 54.8% of cases were living in urban and 45.2% in rural areas. The most contagious seasons were spring. The most common transmission way was consuming of contaminated dairy products (59.3%); however, some of the patients had a history of animal contacts. The most common symptoms were fever (65.2%), arthralgia (68.1%), sweating (32%), malaise and fatigue (37.2%). The most common clinical signs were fever and peripheral arthritis. High leukocytosis and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (>20 mm/h) were reported in all of the cases. Elevated C-reactive protein was detected in 72.1% of patients. Conclusion: Brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with prolonged fever, spondylitis, or peripheral arthritis in endemic areas.
  9 4 -
Alcohol abuse in Iranian adolescents: A mediational model of parental monitoring and affiliation with deviant peers
Sajad Aminimanesh, Javad Khodadadi Sangdeh, Khodabakhsh Ahmadi, Alimohammad Nazari, Mostafa Khanzade
April-June 2017, 4(2):36-41
Aims: This study aimed to determine the attitudes toward alcohol abuse among students in Tehran and to develop and test a model of the relationships among parental monitoring and affiliation with deviant peers as they predict youth alcohol abuse. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1266 adolescents were recruited from high schools in Tehran and three scales of alcohol abuse, parental monitoring, and adolescent affiliation with deviant peers were completed for them. Data were analyzed using independent sample t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and structural equations modeling. Results: The results of this study indicated that 7.4% of individuals had a positive attitude toward alcohol abuse. The percentage of positive attitude among males was nearly 2 times more than females. The study model was confirmed and explained 0.42 of attitudes toward alcohol abuse variance. Moreover, affiliation with deviant peers had a mediating role in the relationship between Parental Monitoring and attitude toward alcohol abuse. Conclusion: According to the results, parental monitoring and affiliation with deviant peers could explain the alcohol abuse among adolescents. Therefore, it is suggested to include these factors in prevention programs aimed at reducing alcohol abuse.
  9 4 -
Preanalytical factors affecting medical laboratory operations: A look at laboratory request forms in a selected tertiary health-care facility in Ibadan
Augustine A Onyeaghala, Oyedotun B Oyedele, Nurudeen A Adebisi, Anthony D Musango
January-March 2017, 4(1):7-12
Aim: To document the frequencies of wrongly filled laboratory request forms with a view to improving process efficiency. Background: Available data have shown that 70% of laboratory errors are preanalytical. Most hospitals in developing countries do not have standardized laboratory request forms and often, laboratory users do not provide all the required information needed for smooth laboratory operations; however, the frequency of these issues are often not documented. This study was aimed to document the frequencies of wrongly filled laboratory request forms with a view to improving process efficiency. Materials and Methods: This was a laboratory-based cross-sectional study. A total of 5000 laboratory request forms, collected from five different laboratory units in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria were retrospectively reviewed for the completeness of information supplied in the request forms after obtaining appropriate ethical approval. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data collected. Results: Findings showed that laboratory request forms across hospital laboratories were not standardized following international best practice. Required information needed for efficient laboratory operations were either incomplete or not provided in the request forms. Conclusion: The need to standardize all request forms using global recommended template with a view to supplying all the necessary information required for smooth laboratory operation and generation of credible data is highlighted in this study.
  9 4 -
Sleep quality and related factors among the nurses of the Hospital of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Zahra Sepehrmanesh, Gholamabbas Mousavi, Hamidreza Saberi, Rezvan Saei
January-March 2017, 4(1):17-21
Aim: Sleep and rest are the essential physiological needs of human. Nurses are at risk of developing sleep problems than others because of having various shift work. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sleep quality and related factors in the nurses. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 200 nurses were selected randomly from Shahid Beheshti Educational Hospital of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, 2016. Persian version of Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index and demographic questionnaire were used for the detection of sleep quality. Results: The mean age of cases was 51.31 years, and most of them (73%) were female. The majority of them had rotating shift work and worked over 150 h per month. 95.5% (191 cases) of them had poor sleep quality. The mean total score of sleep quality in females was higher than males (P = 0.04). The nurses with rotating shift work had higher mean total score of sleep quality than nurses with fixed shift work. Nurses with over 150 h per month had more problems in daily function than others (P = 0.04). Conclusion: These results present that the majority of the nurses had poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality could be affect function, mental and physical health, and secondary effect delivery service to patients. Therefore, attention to this issue and strategies for improved sleep quality is necessary.
  8 5 -
A survey of the perspectives of the female nursing personnel regarding the prevention of low back pain and its appropriate medical treatments
Fereshteh Samadzadeh, Parastoo Yarmohammadi, Nayere Kasiri, Somayeh Haghighat, Peyman Yarmohammadi, Mahsa Salehi, Elahe Piraei
July-September 2017, 4(3):68-73
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the perspectives of the female nurses regarding the prevention and treatment of low back pain (LBP). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 222 female nurses working in Borujen Hospital (situated in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province of Iran) in 2015 selected using simple random sampling. The data were collected using a self-designed questionnaire consisting of 29 items designed in terms of personal information, self-care, awareness, and prevention of LBP. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire was confirmed. Results: About 93.7% of the participants of this study suffered from LBP with a majority of them (21.6%) reporting the monthly episodes of LBP. In terms of actions taken by the nurses when experiencing LBP, it was found that 58.1% of them used to rest during the LBP episodes while 36.5% of them preferred to seek care from a physician, especially a general practitioner. In general, the best-reported ways to ease the LBP were as follows: resting (80.2%), going to doctor (32.4%), and physical exercises (32%), especially practice of back-strengthening exercises. Nearly 53.2% of the nurses proposed that when experiencing LBP, the analgesics should be taken while 44.6% and 1.4% of them believed the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants or drugs can be helpful, respectively. Conclusion: It is very important for the nursing personnel to equip themselves with some information regarding how to manage LBP properly as well as its respective preventive measures so that they can create a healthy work environment for themselves.
  7 5 -
The comparison of nurses and families' viewpoint of family-centered caring in Khalkhal Hospital, 2017
Aziz Kamran, Khadijeh Nasiri, Mozhgan Eskandari, Mohammadtaghi Savadpoor, Irandokht Allahyari, Fatemeh Fathollahi, Farzane Lotfi, Samirasadat Najibi
July-September 2017, 4(3):58-61
Introduction: The health is a family- and patient-pivoted system. Families are the elemental source of caring that provides the financial, emotional support, and hygienic services for their patient's relatives and the nurses as a basic individual in the curing team which remedying their patient interfere directly. The present study is with the aim of the comparison of nurses and families' viewpoint toward family-based caring. Methods: The present study is conducted a descriptive-analytic study that was carried out in 2015 on the nurses, and the main companion of the admitted patients occupied nurses in Khalkhal Emam Khomeini Hospital whit sampling method. The utilized instruments were the researcher-made questionnaire. After gathering data, they were analyzed by the SPSS 18 version. Results: The mean and the standard deviation grade of the nurses and the companions' viewpoint of family-pivoted caring are 46.04 ± 7.59 and 38.63 ± 8.86, respectively. In addition, the comparison of the grade of nurses and companions' viewpoint indicates that there is a significant statistical difference between two groups (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The viewpoint of the studied nurses and families toward the family-centered caring are about in the average and weak level. By considering to the increasing tendency of curative services from the curer-pivoted approach toward the family-pivoted services sound that the reinforcement of the attitude and the viewpoint as two main axis of caring, family-pivoted caring, companion, nurses, and family.
  8 3 -
Comparing standard interferon and interferon conjugated with polyethylene glycol for treatment of patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus infection
Somayeh Hadipour, Hasan Afzali
July-September 2017, 4(3):74-77
Background: The efficacy of interferon (IFN) has recently improved by the replacement of standard IFN by the type conjugated with polyethylene glycol IFN (PEG IFN). However, the superiority of PEG IFN regimen to therapy with standard IFN remains uncertain. Objectives: The present study aimed to assess and compare the efficacy of the two standard IFN and PEG IFN regimens for the treatment of patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted as a retrospective, cohort study assessing 138 consecutive patients diagnosed as a case infected chronically with HBV. The patients were randomly assigned to receive standard IFN regimen (n = 71) intravenously or PEG IFN regimen (n = 67) intravenously for total 24 weeks. All patients were monitored monthly regarding serum aminotransferase level and hepatitis B e antigen (HBe-Ag) positivity as the viral load. Results: Overall, 8.4% in standard IFN group and 10.4% in PEG IFN responded to the treatment regimens with no between-group difference (P = 0.715). The response to treatment protocols was independent to gender, age, and viral load. In addition, 66.7% responded to standard IFN regimen, and 42.9% responded to PEG IFN regimen were positive for HBe-Ag with no difference between the two protocols (P = 0.639). Adjusted for HBe-Ag positivity, the type of IFN used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection could not be effective factor (odds ratio = 0.792, P = 0.690). Conclusion: Our study could not demonstrate the superiority of PEG IFN to standard IFN for treating chronic HBV infection.
  7 3 -
Knowledge of girl students about oxyuriasis in middle schools of Kashan, Central Iran
Rouhullah Dehghani, Hossein Hooshyar, Fatemeh Sadat Ghasemi, Narges Mohammadzadeh, Zahra Bakhtiyari, Manijeh Sepehri, Fatemeh Ghasemi
October-December 2017, 4(4):89-92
Background and Aim: Due to the high prevalence and worldwide distribution of Enterobius vermicularis and its readily transmission among children, parents' knowledge and health education have an important role in restriction and infection control. This study was performed to evaluate the girl students' knowledge about transmission, symptoms, and prevention of oxyuriasis in 2012–2013 in Kashan, Central Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 500 students in three levels of middle schools were studied. To evaluate the students' knowledge level of oxyuriasis, the standardized questionnaire was distributed and completed. Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS. Results: Among three levels of students of middle schools, 67.6% of students had average awareness (information), 17.4% had weak information, and 15% had high information. In the assessment of the level of awareness in the first-level students, 23.41% of the students had weak information, 66.4% had average information, and 10.12% had high information. In the second-level students, 12.57% had weak information, 73.14% had average information, and 14.28% had high information. In the third-level middle-school students, 16.76% of students had weak knowledge, 62.87% had average knowledge, and 20.35% had high knowledge. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that knowledge of middle-school students about this infection is good but not sufficient, and it is necessary for teachers and health officers in schools to increase hygienic knowledge of the students and to train about this infection to decrease the damage of personal and social problems.
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Effect of occupational noise-induced sleep disturbance on worker's health
Milad Abbasi, Mohammad Reza Monnazzam, Seyed Abolfaazl Zakerian, Ahmad Mehri, Maryam Mohammadian Khoshnoud, Arsalan Yousefzadeh
July-September 2017, 4(3):62-67
Aims: In addition to the noise, sleep disturbance (SD) as an outcome of the exposure to the wind turbine noises (WTNs) can adversely affect general health. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SD induced from WTNs on general health indicators. Materials and Methods: A total number of fifty tree workers from Manjil wind farm voluntarily participated in this study. Based on the job similarity and vicinity to the sound sources, workers were classified into three occupational groups including repairman, security, and official staff. Individual's health and sleep status were gathered using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scales, respectively. Noise was measured based on ISO 9612. ANOVA, Chi-square, and linear and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis in the SPSS 20 software environment. Results: The mean values of 8-h equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level (LAeq, 8 h) among whole workers was 71 ± 10 dB (A). The averages of somatic symptom, anxiety insomnia, social dysfunction, depression, and general health among the participants were 5 ± 2.44, 7 ± 2.35, 11 ± 2.65, 2 ± 1.54, 22 ± 6.53, and 7.3 ± 3.1, respectively. According to the results, SD and noise exposure had an adverse health effect on physical symptoms, depression, and overall general health of participants. Moreover, SD and work experience were effective factors on anxiety-insomnia. SD had greatest effect on general health when all variables are controlled, so that general health will increase by 2.42 units for each unit increase of SD. Conclusion: We found that in addition to the sound effect, noise-induced SD also affects worker's health and strengthen sound effects on human well-being.
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Study of electrochemical process effect on detergent removal from polluted water and fish bioassay test of the effluent
Davarkhah Rabbani, Gholam Reza Mostafaii, Vahid Eskandari, Rouhollah Dehghani, Fatemeh Atoof
July-September 2017, 4(3):53-57
Aims: Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is an anionic surfactant which is widely used in household and industrial detergents usage, and after use, it usually finds a way to the wastewater treatment systems. Conventional treatment is not recognized as an efficient method due to the long residence time and enlarged cost. Hence, advanced oxidation processes including electrochemical techniques are important. In this paper, electrochemical degradation of a synthetic solution of LAS with initial concentration 200 ppm has been investigated. Methods: The experiment was performed using eight stainless steel electrodes as cathode and anode with a monopolar arrangement. The effects of current intensity and density were studied as operational parameters on detergent removal efficiency. Results: The maximum removal efficiency 94% was achieved at current intensity equal to 300 mA and current density 6 mA/cm2. The energy consumption was calculated 2.7 ± 0.1 WH/g. The bioassay test showed that only under optimum conditions, 80% of fish was survived until 4 days since the end of the process and the rest were died immediately. All ten fish leaved in unpolluted were survived until 4 days monitoring. Conclusion: The results showed that, by reducing the current density, removal efficiency increases it was true for all current intensities.
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Antibacterial activity of different extracts of prawn shell (Macrobrachium nipponense) against human bacterial pathogens
Katayoon Karimzadeh, Masoumeh Pormehr
January-March 2017, 4(1):13-16
Aims: Bioactive compounds existing in crustacean shells have the potential to inhibit the growth of some pathogenic microorganism. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different extracts of prawn shells (Macrobrachium nipponense) on some human pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Sampling (prawn) was conducted in summer 2014 from Anzali wetland in southern coast of Caspian Sea. Then, the hydroalcoholic, methanolic, and acetone extracts of prawn shells were applied for this purpose. Two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae, and Escherichia coli) were used as test organisms. The antibacterial activity was determined by paper disk diffusion. Results: The prawn shell extracts showed activity against pathogenic bacteria. The highest antibacterial activities were measured in B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae with the zone of inhibition being 12.12 ± 0.32 mm, 12.51 ± 0.14 mm, and 12.35 ± 0.27 mm, respectively. Among all the strains, S. aureus exhibits a significant zone of inhibition against all extracts (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this research showed that different prawn shell extracts, particularly hydroalcoholic, have bactericidal effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus, and V. cholerae species.
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Assessment of physical, psychological, social, and environmental health domains of quality of life in female students living in dormitories of Qom University of Medical Sciences
Elaheh Rahiminia, Hoorieh Rahiminia, Gholamreza Sharifirad
October-December 2017, 4(4):93-96
Aims: Considering significant number of students, especially female students consisting young stratum of the society, there is the increased possibility of mental damages and the direct effect it can have on their quality of life (QOL). The present study aimed to investigate the QOL in female students living in dormitories of the University of Medical Sciences in Qom University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2016 on 300 students of the Qom University of Medical Sciences selected using quota sampling. Data gathering tool was the World Health Organization QOL-BREF questionnaire containing 26 items. Statistical data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics of SPSS software. Results: In general, the mean score of students in the four domains of QOL was respectively related to physical health (14.42 ± 2.42), social health (13.30 ± 3.33), environmental health (13.11 ± 2.95), and psychological health (13 ± 2.81), and also, there was a significant relationship between QOL and age (P < 0.0001), discipline (P < 0.04), economic status (P < 0.0001), and interest in discipline (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that the lowest area of QOL was associated with psychological health; therefore, to increase the QOL in this dimension; the periodical evaluation of the mental health is recommended. Appropriate training to create psychological adjustment in student dormitories can also improve the QOL.
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