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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 143-147

The designing structural model of relationships between psychological empowerment and self-regulating with teachers job performance


Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities Sciences, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

Date of Submission29-Dec-2019
Date of Decision23-Apr-2019
Date of Acceptance03-Jun-2019
Date of Web Publication08-Nov-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Hasanali Veiskarami
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities Sciences, Lorestan University, Khorramabad
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/iahs.iahs_61_18

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  Abstract 


Aim: The purpose of this study was to design and test a model of relationships of psychological empowerment and self-regulation with job performance of teachers. Materials and Methods: Correlation study design was performed through structural equation modeling, and the research population consisted of 1092 teachers of the second high school level of Khorramabad, Lorestan Province, Iran, of which 385 were selected by multistage cluster sampling method. The research questionnairs were Spreitzer and Mishra psychological empowerment (1995), Yesim, Sungur, and Uzuntiryaki self-regulation (2009), and Patterson job performance (1970). Results: The results indicate that the model is fitted with the data, and 0.112% of the variance of job performance variable is explained by the variables of psychological empowerment and self-regulation. The analysis of structural equation modeling showed the effectiveness of the proposed model. Findings showed the direct effects of psychological empowerment on job performance(t=4.449, P <0.01), self-regulation on job performance(t=4.577, P <0.01), and psychological empowerment on self-regulation(t=7.696, P <0.01). The coefficients of indirect effects of psychological empowerment on job performance through self-regulation were also significant. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the education organization can plan to improve psychological empowerment and self-regulation of teachers to deliver good job performance.

Keywords: Job performance, psychological empowerment, self-regulation, teachers


How to cite this article:
Shamsifar M, Veiskarami H, Sadeghi M, Ghazanfari F. The designing structural model of relationships between psychological empowerment and self-regulating with teachers job performance. Int Arch Health Sci 2019;6:143-7

How to cite this URL:
Shamsifar M, Veiskarami H, Sadeghi M, Ghazanfari F. The designing structural model of relationships between psychological empowerment and self-regulating with teachers job performance. Int Arch Health Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Nov 20];6:143-7. Available from: http://www.iahs.kaums.ac.ir/text.asp?2019/6/4/143/270604




  Introduction Top


One of the major variables in organizational behavior is job performance. Job performance is the set of occupational-related behaviors shown by individuals show.[1] Rugelberg defined performance as activities that are usually parts of a person's occupation, which he/she should do.[2] Promotion of job performance is one of the most important goals that manages of the organization are pursuing as it promotes productivity in society. Nozilla et al. and Karimi and Farahbakhsh [3] have shown the relationship of job performance with self-regulation. Self-regulation was introduced in the 1980s by Bandura etal. Zimmermann, as one of the theorists of cognitive-social theory, defines the self-regulation as the amount and extent that students actively participate in their own learning processes in terms of metacognition, motivation, and behavior.[4] The main goal of self-regulated learning is to develop independent and self-regulating learners who learn experiences and skills as a lifelong learner in the areas of their needs and interests. Similar to students, developing self-regulating teachers is also among the major goals of education. The effectiveness of self-regulation in academic and job performance has been shown in several studies;[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11] so, to have an empowered organization, employees need to train self-directed skills.[12] The self-regulation of teachers has nine subscales as follows:(1) goal location,(2) internal motivation,(3) performance goal orientation,(4) mastering goal orientation,(5) self-learning,(6) emotion control,(7) self-assessment,(8) self-reaction, and(9) help seeking.[13] Saee [14] in his research states that self-regulation has a positive and significant relationship with psychological empowerment. Powerful people are self-controlling and self-regulating. They easily accept responsibility and have a positive view of themselves, others, and the environment, and are optimistic about their career and life.[15] Pahlavan Sadegh and Abdollahi [16] showed the role of self-regulation mediator in psychological empowerment and job satisfaction. Traditionally, in some researches, empowerment has been considered as a way of increasing the effectiveness and organizational innovations, product and service quality, motivation, employee job satisfaction, and job performance,[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22] and reducing employee turnover and absence.[23],[24] The relationship between empowerment with job outcomes and job performance improvement has been identified in various researches.[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32] Empowering is not only giving power to employees, Empowering enabling employees to improve their performance by learning knowledge, skills, and motivation. In fact, empowerment means having more sense of responsibility and accountability to improve organizational performance.[33] Some theorists suggest that empowerment reflects the psychological state of the staff. Empowerment is defined differently in psychological terms and is used by terms such as self-actualization, charisma, self-esteem, enabling, or synergy.[20],[21] Spritzer defines psychological empowerment as a four-dimensional motivational concept including merit, autonomy(right to choose), meaningfulness, and effectiveness. Watten and Cameron consider empowerment as the process of giving power to the employees. This means helping them to strengthen their sense of self-confidence, overcome the sense of powerlessness or helplessness, and giving them energy and motivation for doing activities.[34] Therefore, it can be said that psychological empowerment has five dimensions: competence, autonomy, effectiveness, meaningfulness, and trust. Considering the above-mentioned relationships, the present study examines the general pattern of assumed relationships of these variables in the teachers' population expressed in the following five hypotheses:

  • Hypothesis 1–The structural model of outcomes is fitted with data
  • Second solution–Psychological empowerment has a direct and causal effect on the job performance of the teachers in the city of Khorramabad
  • Third hypothesis: Self-regulation has a direct and causal effect on the job performance of the teachers in the city of Khorramabad
  • Fourth hypothesis–Psychological empowerment has a direct and causal effect on the self-regulation of the teachers in Khorramabad city
  • Fifth hypothesis–Psychological empowerment through self-regulation has a causal and indirect effect on the job performance of the teachers in Khorramabad city. The assumed communication picture is presented in [Figure1].
Figure 1: The proposed structural model for psychological empowerment and self-regulation relationships with teachers' job performance

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  Materials and Methods Top


The study was done using the descriptive and correlational method. In this study, the statistical population included all teachers working in high schools in the city of Khorramabad, of which 400 were randomly selected by the multistage cluster sampling method. The questionnaires were distributed among them; 385 teachers completed questionnaires. To conduct the study, first of all, two distinct of Khorramabad were selected from among the two first and second secondary schools of the same period, and from among the schools of that period and that area, assuming at least 16secretaries in each school activities, the 25 schools were selected randomly and 16 from each school were selected randomly. After data entry, using IBM SPSS software (United State), all correlation coefficients, reliability coefficients, and descriptive statistics results were calculated. SSI LISREL software (United State)was applied to test the research hypotheses. Bootstrapping test was applied to explore the indirect effects of psychological empowerment on job performance through self-regulation. Preacher and Leonardli suggested the application of soberest in case the user does not have access to the raw data. If the raw data were accessible, bootstrapping would be a better alternative, which would not impose any assumptions about distribution. McKinnon, Lockwood, and Williams believed that bootstrapping is one of the repeated sampling methods, which has been applied extensively. Bootstrapping includes illustrating a large number of the samples through the main sample permutation. In sampling through permutation, bootstrap samples may not include some numbers at all or some numbers may be repeated several times in the sample even if the samples are similar to the main sample in terms of the size. The target model is estimated in each bootstrap sample, which is a part of the main data. The distribution of the estimated statistics in each bootstrap sample could be applied to show the significance of the tests or establish the confidence interval. In addition, Shrout and Bolger confirmed and supported the application of bootstrapping to test the models having mediating variables.[35]

Tools

Psychological empowerment questionnaire

To measure the psychological empowerment, the psychological empowerment questionnaire of Spreader and Mishra(1995) was used. The questionnaire includes 15 questions. The five dimensions of this scale are competence, autonomy, influence, meaningfulness, and trust. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the whole scale is 0.87, and the Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the subscales are between 0.67 and 0.86, which indicates that the tool is reliable.

Teacher self-regulation scale

Teacher self-regulation scale(Yesim, Sungur and Uzuntiryaki, 2009) was used to measure teacher's self-regulation. This questionnaire was designed based on Zimmerman's self-regulation model using semi-structured interviews with teachers. The questionnaire consists of 40 questions; Yassim et al.(2009) through 9 factor confirmation factor analysis were presented for this scale:goal orientation, internal interest, functional goal orientation, mastery goal orientation, self-instruction, emotional control, self-assessment, self-reaction, and helpfulness. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire=0.92.

Job performance questionnaire

Peterson job performance questionnaire(1992) is used to measure job performance. This questionnaire was translated by Shokrkon and Arshadi(2007) and consists of 15 questions, each question of a four-dimensional scale including always(4), often(3), occasionally(2), and rarely(1); the maximum score in this questionnaire is 60 and the minimum is 15. The reliability of this scale has been reported by Peterson(1992) through Cronbach's alpha. The reliability of this scale using Cronbach's alpha and split-half reliability methods is 0.85 and 0.85, respectively. The validity of this questionnaire was correlated with a self-evaluation questionnaire. The result was at the acceptable level of 0.05.

Assumptions

Before considering the fitting of the model with the data, the assumptions about structural equation were investigated. To study the condition of normalization by Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, the linear condition was evaluated using the curve estimation and multiple alignment condition by examining the coefficient of low correlation of 0/80. LISREL software was used to analyze the data.


  Results Top


In this structural model, the psychological empowerment variable is considered as the predictor variable and the self-regulation variable as a mediation variable that affects the job performance criterion variable. The correlation matrix, mean, and standard deviation of research data are shown in [Table1]. [Table2] shows the fitting indices of the studied structural pattern with the research data. The values in [Table2] show that the structural pattern is fitted with the data. Regression coefficients have been reported in [Figure 2] show that exogenous and mediator variables had 10 percent increasing validity in predicting job performance. In addition, in [Table3], the estimated standard coefficients are reported by the partial least-square estimation method. It is clear in this diagram that the psychological empowerment explains about 11% of the job performance variance. By adding a self-regulation mediator variable, it is clear that the incremental validity of the psychological empowerment variable in the explanation of job performance increases by 11%.
Table 1: Correlation matrix, mean, and standard deviation


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Table 2: Structural model fitting indices with data


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Figure 2: Standard coefficients of the structural model of job performance, self-regulation, and psychological empowerment

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Table 3: Regression standard coefficients of structural model prediction of psychological empowerment and self-regulation relationships with job performance


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In [Table3], the standard regression coefficients are predicted, and t-statistics are reported for measuring the significance of these coefficients. The results of the reported regression coefficients in [Table3] show that all standard coefficients of all three direct paths are significant at the level of P <0.01. Bootstrapping test was used to examine the mediating role of self-regulation variable in the relationship between psychological empowerment and job performance. [Table4] shows the result of the bootstrapping test for this study. According to the reported results in [Table4], it is clear that self-regulation plays a significant mediating role between psychological empowerment and job performance(T=3.94; P >0.01).
Table 4: Bootstrapping test to examine the role of self-regulation mediator in the relationship between psychological empowerment and job performance


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  Discussion Top


In examining the first hypothesis that refers to the fitting of a structural pattern with data, the results indicated that the model is fitted with the data, and 0.112% of the variance of job performance variable is explained by the variables of psychological empowerment and self-regulation. Since no research has been done so far on this issue, in the explanation of this hypothesis, we have referred to the most recent studies related to the present issue. Employees need to learn self-directed skills to have an empowered organization.[12] Nozilla et al. and Karimi and Farahbakhsh [3] have shown the relationship between job performance and self-regulation. In some researches,[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11] the relationship between job and academic performance and psychological empowerment has been shown. On the other hand,Saee [14]in his research states that self-regulation has a positive and significant relationship with psychological empowerment. Powerful people are self-controlling and self-regulating. They easily accept responsibility and have a positive view of themselves, others, and the environment, and are optimistic about their career and life.[15] Pahlavan Sadegh and Abdullahi [16] showed the role of self-regulation mediator in psychological empowerment and job satisfaction. Faghihipour and Chatrchi [35] also suggest that the job performance is one of the consequences of psychological empowerment. Findings of this hypothesis show that job performance, through direct and indirect self-regulation mediation, is a consequence of psychological empowerment and the result of this hypothesis is confirmed by these studies. The findings of the second hypothesis indicate that psychological empowerment has a positive and significant effect on job performance(P<0.01, t=4.449). The results of Moradi and Jalilian's research [15]show that the empowerment and empowering the employees will have a positive effect on the organization and the employees themselves. This research showed that psychological empowerment could increase employees' performance, satisfaction, organizational commitment, and decrease job stress; in other words, by increasing the employees' empowerment, their performance will increase. These results coincided with the results of the Gorji study,[25] in which the effect of empowerment on employees' performance was positive in the Golestan Telecom Company; these results were consistent with the findings of Alwani et al.[26] The results of these studies as well as the results of the researches [15],[17],[33]were consistent with the results of this hypothesis. In the third hypothesis, it was found that the self-regulation effect on job performance was positive and significant(P<0.01, t=4.577). The employee's job performance in an organization includes the overall expectations of the organization of the individual behavior of that person shown in a given period.[36] The effectiveness of self-regulation on academic and job performance has been shown in various researches;[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11] therefore, for empowering the organization, employees need to be trained in terms of self-directed skills.[12] The results of theories and researches [3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11] were consistent with the analysis of this hypothesis. The results of the fourth hypothesis survey indicated that psychological empowerment had a positive and significant effect on self-regulation(P<0.01; t=7.696). Since no research has been done so far on this issue, in the explanation of this hypothesis, we have referred to the most recent studies related to the present issue. Saee [13] in his research states that self-regulation has a positive and significant relationship with psychological empowerment. Powerful people are self-controlling and self-regulating. They easily accept responsibility and have a positive view of themselves, others, and the environment, and are optimistic about their career and life.[15] The results of this hypothesis were consistent with theories and researches.[14],[15] The study of the fifth hypothesis showed that the coefficients of the indirect effects of psychological empowerment on job performance through self-regulation were significant. Regarding these findings and considering the relationship between self-regulation and psychological empowerment [14],[15] and job performance,[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11] it can be concluded that self-regulation has a mediating role in the relationship between psychological empowerment and job performance.


  Conclusion Top


The overall results indicated the model is fitted with the data, and psychological empowerment has a positive, significant, and direct relationship with job performance; also, job performance, through indirect self-regulation mediator, is a consequence of psychological empowerment. These show that teacher job performance through planning to improve psychological empowerment and self-regulation could increase.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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    Figures

  [Figure1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table1], [Table2], [Table3], [Table4]



 

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