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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 136-140

Effect of aerobic training and Rosa damascena supplement on the memory of obese women


Department of Sport Sciences, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

Date of Submission28-Feb-2019
Date of Decision05-May-2019
Date of Acceptance06-May-2019
Date of Web Publication26-Aug-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Khadijeh Irandoust
Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/iahs.iahs_6_19

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  Abstract 


Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 8-week aerobic training and supplementation of Rosa damascene on the memory of obese women. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two obese women (age: 34.3 ± 5.6 years; fat percentage: above 35%; and waist-to-hip ratio: above 0.85) were selected based on convenience sampling in a quasi-experimental study, with pre- and post-test design with control group. The women were randomly divided and allocated into aerobic exercises with R. damascene supplement group (TS Group) (n = 9); aerobic training group with placebo (TP Group) (n = 8), aerobic training group (T Group) (n = 7), and control group (C Group) (n = 8). The memory status was evaluated by the Wechsler questionnaire at pretest and posttest. ANCOVA and paired t-test were performed for analyzing the data by SPSS for Windows. Results: The results suggested that all the three experimental groups had a significant improvement in memory index (P ≤ 0.05). The results also indicated that TS group had a significant improvement in memory condition compared to other groups (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that the use of R. damascene with aerobic exercise had a significant effect on the memory of obese women. Therefore, given the positive effects of R. damascene and aerobic exercise, this strategy can be used to improve the memory of obese women.

Keywords: Exercise, memory, obese, Rosa damascene


How to cite this article:
Razipour M, Irandoust K, Taheri M. Effect of aerobic training and Rosa damascena supplement on the memory of obese women. Int Arch Health Sci 2019;6:136-40

How to cite this URL:
Razipour M, Irandoust K, Taheri M. Effect of aerobic training and Rosa damascena supplement on the memory of obese women. Int Arch Health Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Sep 20];6:136-40. Available from: http://www.iahs.kaums.ac.ir/text.asp?2019/6/3/136/265446




  Introduction Top


Obesity is one of the most important global health concerns that has now become an epidemic worldwide.[1],[2] Overweight and obesity are due to excessive energy intake and lack of physical activity.[3],[4] In addition, genetic and socio-psychological factors, neurological disorders, and excessive feeding in childhood are among the factors of obesity.[5] Obesity increases the risk factors for chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, which include a combination of disorders or diseases such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, high blood cholesterol and triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and asthma.[6],[7],[8],[9] The nervous system is one of the human body systems that is highly affected by obesity. In this system, the structure called hippocampus is a very important key to consolidation, storing information, and forming long-term memory. Lifestyle, unhealthy diet, overweight, obesity, and genetic factors are among the essential factors influencing the memory.[10],[11] In some studies, fatty tissue has been shown to release a substance called cytokine, which can cause inflammation in various tissues of the body, including brain tissue that affects memory. In addition, abnormal fat metabolism creates a risk of memory and learning. People with large amounts of abdominal fat are 3.6 times more likely to have memory deficits and dementia.[12] Studies have also shown that obesity reduces the amount of white matter that is believed to be linked to obesity with brain aging.[13] Given that memory loss and dementia are the complications of overweight and obesity,[14],[15] it is necessary to provide the persons with obesity with preventive strategies such as exercise and supplements. The effect of exercise on the function of various organs of the human being, such as the heart, lung, and skeletal muscle, is well documented. According to research, the brain responds to physical activity at anatomical, cellular, and molecular levels. Many of these changes occur in some of the brain structures involved in memory, learning, and cognitive functions.[16],[17],[18],[19],[20] In addition to exercise, the use of herbal supplements on memory has often been considered in research. Esfandiari et al. in a study showed that the animal model of Alzheimer's disease was controlled and treated somewhat by the administration of Rosa damascena extract.[21] It has been extensively used to prevent and treat many diseases, such as stomach pains, sore throats, fever, ophthalmic problems, chest pain, menstrual bleeding, breast tenderness, constipation, and other digestive problems.[22],[23],[24],[25],[26] The mechanism of Rosa damascena is purifying the purulent waste accumulated in the nerve tissue, which saves it from the risk of dysfunction and ultimately cell death, and even causes the proliferation of neural cells. Therefore, preventive measures for overweight and obese people who are prone to memory loss can be the most important means of controlling the disease in addition to exercise. According to various studies, there was no research on the effect of aerobic exercises and the use of Rosa damascena on the memory of obese people. Therefore, the effect of aerobic exercises along with Rosa damascena on the memory of obese women was investigated in the current study.


  Materials and Methods Top


Participants

This was a quasi-experimental study, with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The statistical population of this study constituted obese women who were referred to Qazvin clubs. Among them, 32 obese women (age: 34.3 ± 5.6 years; fat percentage: above 35%; waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]: above 0.85) were selected based on convenience sampling. All experiments were conducted in the exercise physiology laboratory of Imam Khomeini International University. The inclusion criteria included the following: (a) insignificant depressive symptoms as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (score <13) (depression is considered as an effective factor on memory status); (b) lacking the history of cognitive or other neurological disorders; (c) not taking any medication that would affect the cognitive performance; (d) The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ≤5 (sleep quality is considered as an effective factor on memory status);[27] (e) being nonsmoker; and (f) lack of regular participation in sports activities during the past 6 months. The participants were informed about the study procedure, and they completed the consent form in the study. The participants were randomly divided into three experimental and control groups. The groups consisted of aerobic exercises with Rosa damascena supplement (TS Group) (n = 9); aerobic training group with placebo (TP Group) (n = 8); aerobic training group (T Group) (n = 7); and control group (C Group) (n = 8).

Procedure

The nutrition status of participants (both micro- and macro-nutrients) as an effective factor on memory status was monitored by 24-h calorie intake questionnaire. Recommended calorie intake was prescribed based on their basal metabolic rate and their total energy expenditure measured by body composition analyzer (InBody, 320, Korea). Furthermore, the obesity index was recognized as fat percentage above 35% and WHR above 0.90 as measured by body composition analyzer in pretest and posttest. The memory status was evaluated by the Wechsler questionnaire at pretest and posttest. The validity and internal consistency of this test have been reported in various studies in Iranian populations.[28],[29] The Wechsler Memory Scale was designed for clinical use as a rapid and simple memory examination. This version is comprised of seven subtests, namely (1) personal and current information; (2) immediate orientation; (3) mental control; (4) logical memory; (5) memory span; (6) visual reproduction; and (7) associate learning.[30] The TS group first used 2.5 g of powdered capsules every 24 h in the form of a capsule in the 1st week to prevent possible gastrointestinal complications (diarrhea). Then they consumed 2.5 g of powdered capsules every 12 h in the 2nd week. In the next week, the women received 7.5 g of R. damascene supplement every 8 h. The placebo group also used starch powder in the form of a capsule.[21]

The aerobic training was performed for 8 weeks, three sessions a week with an intensity of 60%–75% of maximal heart rate (HR). The exercise intensity was controlled by Polar S810 h monitor (Polar Electro, Kempele, Finland). The exercise protocol was performed under the supervision of an exercise physiologist.

In every 2 weeks, the intensity was added by 5%, in other words, from week 2-4, the intensity was 65% and weeks of 4-6 was 70% and finally it was elevated up to 80%. Exercise protocol included 10 min of warming up, 30 min of main program, and 5 min of cooling down.[31]

Ethical considerations

The study protocol was in accordance with the Helsinki declaration and was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Imam Khomeini International University (Ref. 17628.1395). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and they were informed prior to starting the research.

Statistical analysis

Normality distribution of variables was tested using Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. ANCOVA test was performed for analyzing the data by SPSS software for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Statistically significant difference was set at P ≤ 0.05. All values were reported as means ± standard deviation.


  Results Top


[Table 1] shows the demographic characteristics of the women. WHR and body fat percentage were significantly improved in all the three experimental groups in posttest (P ≤ 0.05), with a greater improvement in the TS group (P = 0.001). The comparison of memory in the groups is found in [Figure 1].
Table 1: Obesity indices of the participants (mean±standard deviation)

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Figure 1: Comparison of memory status of groups in posttest

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Paired t-test results are shown in [Table 2]. As shown in the table, there were significant improvements in posttest of TS (P = 0.001), TP (P = 0.006), and A groups (P = 0.01).
Table 2: Memory status of groups in pre- and post-test

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The results of covariance analysis are shown in [Table 3]. As shown, there was a significant difference between pre- and post-test of the groups. The results of the follow-up test are shown in [Table 4].
Table 3: Memory status in groups (ANCOVA test)

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Table 4: Pair-wise comparison groups (Bonferroni post hoc test)

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[Table 4] shows the results of Bonferroni post hoc test. As shown in the table, TS group had a significant improvement in memory as compared to the A group (P = 0.027) and control group (P = 0.001).


  Discussion Top


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training and supplementation of Rosa damascena on the memory of obese women. The findings indicated that all the three experimental groups had better memory patterns following exercise and supplementation of R. damascene, with greater improvement in the TS group that had both interventions simultaneously.

Evidences suggest that R. damascene extract significantly inhibits neuronal growth and inhibits A-β fibrillation and deposition in the brain. Most studies have shown that R. damascene is a naturally occurring source of flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, gallic acid, and glycoside derivatives, which play a protective role in the brain and nerve function, including neuroxin-protective effects; nerve inflammatory suppression; and promoting memory, learning, and cognitive function.[32] These effects can occur due to flavonoids leading to apoptosis inhibition, neuronal survival, and synaptic flexibility. They can also promote brain blood flow, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and neuronal morphology.[33] It also contains carboxylic acid, migraine, and Vitamin C.[34] In a research study, a positive effect of R. damascene extract on memory deficiency due to high-fat diet was found. It was assumed that the observed effects of the extract were due to its potent antioxidant properties.[35] Furthermore, in a study, the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascene on memory performance in a model of scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats was investigated. The results showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascene prevents memory deficiency due to scopolamine.[36]

This finding suggests that sulfur is potentially effective in improving memory due to its antioxidant effects.[37] In a study, it was shown that Rosa damascena would alleviate the destructive consequences of Alzheimer and also memory loss in the elderly population.[21],[38] These results are consistent with our studies in terms of effectiveness of R. damascene on memory status. One of the findings was that the A group (mere aerobic training) did not experience significant improvement in memory, which is consistent with the results of Cuttler et al.,[39] whereas the findings contradict that of other researches.[16], 18, [38],[39],[40],[41] Differences in research methods and procedure and also age and gender are among the possible reasons of the divergent results. Given the effectiveness of R. damascene and exercise group, it can be concluded that the use of both interventions plays an important role in improving the memory of obese women. One of the most important limitations of this study was the low number of participants, and it is highly recommended to include large number of participants in future studies for obtaining more crucial results.


  Conclusion Top


The results showed that the use of R. damascene with aerobic exercise had a significant effect on the memory of obese women. Therefore, given the positive effects of R. damascene and aerobic exercise, this strategy can be used to improve the memory of obese women.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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