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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 73-77

Extranodal nasofacial natural killer/T-Cell lymphoma often missed by clinician


1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, IMS and SUM Hospital, Siksha “O“ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Department of Haemato-Oncology, IMS and SUM Hospital, Siksha “O“ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
3 Department of Medical Research Laboratory, IMS and SUM Hospital, Siksha “O“ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Santosh Kumar Swain
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, IMS and SUM Hospital, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/iahs.iahs_28_18

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Aim: This study aims to review the current literature and to focus on etiopathogenesis, clinical profile, diagnosis, and treatment of extranodal nasofacial natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma. Materials and Methods: It is based upon the available literatures from PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar with the keywords: etiopathogenesis, clinical pictures, diagnostic methods, and current treatment of extranodal nasofacial NK/T-cell lymphoma from 2002 to 2017. Results: Primary nasofacial lymphoma is a rare form of malignancy in head and neck area. Extranodal nasofacial NK/T-cell lymphoma is an unusual clinical entity, which is an aggressive entity of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with distinct clinicopathological pictures. It is possibly associated with Epstein–Barr virus infection. It is highly aggressive disease with poor prognosis. Nasofacial NK/T-cell lymphoma or lethal midline granuloma is often associated with destruction of midface and surrounding areas such as orbit, paranasal sinuses, and palate. The clinical picture is highly variable, often missed by clinician and depends on location and histopathological type of the lesion. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry are important tools for diagnosis of nasofacial NK/T-cell lymphoma. Histopathological picture shows angiocentric and angiodestructive pattern of tumor cells which often mimic vasculitis. Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice which improves quality and longevity of life whereas addition of chemotherapy gives additional benefit to the patients. Conclusion: Practicing physicians and otorhinolaryngologist need to be aware of this nonspecific presentation of lesion to prevent delay in diagnosis. Early diagnosis and intervention prolongs the survival of the patients.


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