[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Volume 3, Number 2 (Spring 2016) ::
IAHS 2016, 3(2): 27-36 Back to browse issues page
Intellectual Disability in Children; a Systematic Review
N. Dasteh Goli *1, S. Farah Moniri2, Z. Ross Wilhelm3
1- Department of Computer Information Systems and Technology, University of Maryland, Maryland, United States of America , nilufar.dg@gmail.com
2- Department of Law, Psychology & Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
3- Robert H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland, Maryland, United States of America
Abstract:   (1194 Views)

Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases.
Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review.
Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community.
Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.

Keywords: Intellectual Disability [MeSH], Disabled Children [MeSH], Review, Systematic [MeSH],
Full-Text [PDF 438 kb]   (390 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (710 Views)  
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Mental Health and Psychosocial Hazards
Received: 2016/01/28 | Accepted: 2016/05/3 | Published: 2016/08/13
* Corresponding Author Address: 1616 McCormick Dr, Upper Marlboro, MD 20774, Maryland, United States of America
References
1. Matson J. International review of research in mental retardation [Volume 34]. 1st edition. Cambridge: Academic Press; 2007. [Elsevier]
2. Council on Children With Disabilities; Section on Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics; Bright Futures Steering Committee; Medical Home Initiatives for Children With Special Needs Project Advisory Committee. Identifying infants and young children with developmental disorders in the medical home: an algorithm for developmental surveillance and screening. Pediatrics. 2006;118(1):405-20. [PubMed]
3. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. [Homepage]
4. American Psychiatric Association. Intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder). in: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. p. 33.
5. Moeschler JB, Shevell M, Committee on Genetics. Comprehensive evaluation of the child with intellectual disability or global developmental delays. Pediatr. 2014;134(3):e903-18. [Homepage]
6. Frankenburg WK, Dodds J, Archer P, Shapiro H, Bresnick B. The Denver II: A major revision and restandardization of the Denver developmental screening test. Pediatrics. 1992;89(1):91. [Homepage]
7. Szymanski L, King BH. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with mental retardation and comorbid mental disorders- American Academy of Child and Adolescent [PubMed]
8. Szymanski L, King BH. Summary of the practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with mental retardation and comorbid mental disorders. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38(12):1606-10. [PubMed]
9. Szymanski L, King BH. Summary of the practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with mental retardation and comorbid mental disorders. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38(12):1606-10. [Homepage]
10. Veltman JA, Brunner HG. De novo mutations in human genetic disease. Nat Rev Genet 2012;13(8):565-75. [PubMed]
11. Maulik PK, Mascarenhas MN, Mathers CD, Dua T, Saxena S. Prevalence of intellectual disability: A metaanalysis of population-based studies. Res Dev Disabil. 2011;32(2):419-36. [PubMed]
12. Moeschler JB, Shevell M, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Genetics. Clinical genetic evaluation of the child with mental retardation or developmental delays. Pediatrics 2006;117(6):2304-16. [PubMed]
13. Einfeld SL, Ellis LA, Emerson E. Comorbidity of intellectual disability and mental disorder in children and adolescents: a systematic review. J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2011;36(2):137-43. [PubMed]
14. Ramer JC, Miller G. Overview of mental retardation. Miller G, Ramer JC, editors. Static encephalopathies of infancy and childhood. New York: Raven Press; 1992.
15. Kaufman L, Ayub M, Vincent JB. The genetic basis of non-syndromic intellectual disability: A review. J Neurodev Disord. 2010;2(4):182-209. [PMC]
16. Chapman DA, Scott KG, Mason CA. Early risk factors for mental retardation: role of maternal age and maternal education. Am J Ment Retard. 2002;107(1):46-59. [PubMed]
17. Strømme P. Aetiology in severe and mild mental retardation: A population-based study of Norwegian children. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2000;42(2):76-86. [PubMed]
18. Croen LA, Grether JK, Selvin S. The epidemiology of mental retardation of unknown cause. Pediatrics. 2001;107(6):E86. [PubMed]
19. Gaudino R, Garel C, Czernichow P, Léger J. Proportion of various types of thyroid disorders among newborns with congenital hypothyroidism and normally located gland: A regional cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;62(4):444-8. [PubMed]
20. Skordis N, Toumba M, Savva SC, Erakleous E, Topouzi M, Vogazianos M, et al. High prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in the Greek Cypriot population: Results of the neonatal screening program 1990-2000. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2005;18(5):453-61. [PubMed]
21. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel. National institutes of health consensus development conference statement: Phenylketonuria: Screening and management, October 16-18, 2000. Pediatrics. 2001;108(4):972-82. [PubMed]
22. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM): Lead Toxicity. Available from: http://http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/lead/docs/lead.pdf. [File]
23. Bilder DA, Pinborough-Zimmerman J, Bakian AV, Miller JS, Dorius JT, Nangle B, et al. Prenatal and perinatal factors associated with intellectual disability. Am J Intellect Disability. 2013;118(2):156-76. [PubMed]
24. Mann JR, McDermott SW, Hardin J, Pan C, Zhang Z. Pre-pregnancy body mass index, weight change during pregnancy, and risk of intellectual disability in children. Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013;120(3):309-19. [PubMed]
25. Maïano C. Prevalence and risk factors of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Obes Rev. 2011;12(3):189-97. [PubMed]
26. Harris JC. Intellectual disability: Understanding its development, causes, classification, evaluation, and treatment. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. p. 42. [Homepage]
27. Veltman JA, Brunner HG. De novo mutations in human genetic disease. Nat Rev Genet. 2012;13(8):565-75. [PubMed]
28. Maulik PK, Mascarenhas MN, Mathers CD, Dua T, Saxena S. Prevalence of intellectual disability: A metaanalysis of population-based studies. Res Dev Disabil. 2011;32(2):419-36. [PubMed]
29. McLaren J, Bryson SE. Review of recent epidemiological studies of mental retardation: Prevalence, associated disorders, and etiology. Am J Ment Retard. 1987;92(3):243-54. [PubMed]
30. de Vries PJ, Hunt A, Bolton PF. The psychopathologies of children and adolescents with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): A postal survey of UK families. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;16(1):16-24. [PubMed]
31. Staley BA, Montenegro MA, Major P, Muzykewicz DA, Halpern EF, Kopp CM, et al. Self-injurious behavior and tuberous sclerosis complex: Frequency and possible associations in a population of 257 patients. Epilepsy Behav. 2008;13(4):650-3. [PubMed]
32. McClintock K, Hall S, Oliver C. Risk markers associated with challenging behaviours in people with intellectual disabilities: a meta-analytic study. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2003;47(Pt 6):405-16. [PubMed]
33. Eden KE, de Vries PJ, Moss J, Richards C, Oliver C. Self-injury and aggression in tuberous sclerosis complex: cross syndrome comparison and associated risk markers. J Neurodev Disord. 2014;6(1):10. [PMC]
34. Zuromski ES. The management of mental retardation. Miller G, Ramer JC, editors. Static Encephalopathies of infancy and childhood. New York: Raven Press; 1992. p. 119.
35. Shevell M, Ashwal S, Donley D, Flint J, Gingold M, Hirtz D, et al. Practice parameter: evaluation of the child with global developmental delay: Report of the quality standards subcommittee of the american academy of neurology and the practice committee of the child neurology society. Neurol. 2003;60(3):367-80. [PubMed]
36. Rowe R, Maughan B, Goodman R. Childhood psychiatric disorder and unintentional injury: Findings from a national cohort study. J Paediatr Psychol. 2004;29(2):119-30. [PubMed]
37. Slayter EM, Garnick DW, Kubisiak JM, Bishop CE, Gilden DM, Hakim RB. Injury prevalence among children and adolescents with mental retardation. Mental Retard. 2006;44(3):212-23. [PubMed]
38. Sherrard J, Tonge B, Ozanne-Smith J. Injury in young people with intellectual disability: Descriptive epidemiology. Inj Prev. 2001;7(1):56-61. [PMC]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or email:

Write the security code in the box >



DOI: 10.18869/IAHS.2016.27-36


XML     Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Dasteh Goli N, Farah Moniri S, Ross Wilhelm Z. Intellectual Disability in Children; a Systematic Review. IAHS. 2016; 3 (2) :27-36
URL: http://iahs.kaums.ac.ir/article-1-84-en.html
Volume 3, Number 2 (Spring 2016) Back to browse issues page
International Archives of Health Sciences
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.16 seconds with 842 queries by yektaweb 3395